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Module by: Don Johnson. E-mail the author

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 Name: Complex Numbers ID: m0081 Language: English (en) Summary: An introduction to complex numbers. Subject: Mathematics and Statistics Keywords: angle of complex number, Cartesian form, complex number, imaginary number, imaginary part, magnitude of complex number, polar form Document Type: -//CNX//DTD CNXML 0.5 plus MathML//EN License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 1.0 Authors: Copyright Holders: Maintainers: Latest version: 2.27 (history) First publication date: Aug 2, 2000 12:00 am -0500 Last revision to module: Aug 9, 2008 6:22 pm -0500

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## Version History

 Version: 2.29 May 15, 2013 7:41 pm -0500 by Changes: `Fixed minor typos.` Version: 2.28 Jan 27, 2013 12:51 pm -0600 by Changes: `Fixed an error in an expression.` Version: 2.27 Aug 9, 2008 6:22 pm -0500 by Currently viewing this version. Changes: `Improved the presentation of complex division.` Version: 2.26 Aug 8, 2008 3:01 pm -0500 by Changes: `Changed the prose concerning j.` Version: 2.25 Aug 2, 2008 11:40 am -0500 by Changes: `Added a beginning segue.` Version: 2.24 Jul 30, 2008 5:30 pm -0500 by Changes: `Rearranged groups of equations into tables.` Version: 2.23 Jul 28, 2008 4:02 pm -0500 by Changes: `Fixed a minor spelling error.` Version: 2.22 Aug 9, 2007 9:39 am -0500 by Changes: `Rewrote the entire module to improve the presentation and added more problems.` Version: 2.21 Jun 3, 2007 11:17 pm -0500 by Changes: `Fixed a minor formatting problem.` Version: 2.20 Apr 12, 2005 4:32 pm -0500 by Changes: `update to cnxml-0.5, fix typos, update mathml` Version: 2.19 Aug 26, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Fixed error: hd i^3=-1 and correct to be i^3=-i. ``` Version: 2.18 Aug 17, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Reordered a math display. ``` Version: 2.17 Aug 13, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Upgraded to 0.4. ``` Version: 2.16 Aug 5, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Fixed minor typos. ``` Version: 2.15 May 28, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Added link to the complex plane. ``` Version: 2.14 Apr 19, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```changed a lot of presentation math to content, js to imaginaryi, superscript * to conjugate etc ``` Version: 2.13 Sep 11, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by Changes: ```Converted to CNXML 0.3.5 ``` Version: 2.12 Aug 27, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```- added missing exercise at the end ``` Version: 2.11 Aug 24, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Changed all the subscript errors. -erin ``` Version: 2.10 Aug 24, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```i changed an equation so it would be right. -erin ``` Version: 2.9 Aug 24, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Changed keywords. ``` Version: 2.8 Aug 23, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```no changes ``` Version: 2.7 Aug 23, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```I changed the math for real and imaginary numbers so they are actually recognized as entities. ``` Version: 2.6 Aug 22, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```correcting some math errors. ``` Version: 2.5 Jul 17, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```added keywords made John Cottrell a maintainer fixed minor errors ``` Version: 2.4 Jun 5, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Fixed emphasis, added an abstract, fixed the display of some equations. ``` Version: 2.3 Jun 4, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Upgraded to cnxml version 0.3 ``` Version: 2.2 May 30, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Just getting rid of the "C" ``` Version: 2.1 May 29, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown) Changes: ```Upgraded to cnxml version 0.3 ``` Version: 2.0 Aug 17, 2000 12:00 am -0500 by Changes: ```Bumped version to 2.0 ```

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### American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

Johnson, D. Complex Numbers, OpenStax-CNX Web site. http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/, Aug 9, 2008.

### American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

Johnson D. Complex Numbers [OpenStax-CNX Web site]. August 9, 2008. Available at: http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/.

### American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

Johnson, D. (2008, August 9). Complex Numbers. Retrieved from the OpenStax-CNX Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/

### Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

Johnson, Don. "Complex Numbers." OpenStax-CNX. August 9, 2008. http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

Don Johnson, "Complex Numbers," OpenStax-CNX, August 9, 2008, http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Reference, in Author-Date style):

Johnson, D. 2008. Complex Numbers. OpenStax-CNX, August 9, 2008. http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/.

### Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

Johnson, Don. Complex Numbers. OpenStax-CNX. 9 Aug. 2008 <http://cnx.org/content/m0081/2.27/>.