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About: The Ionosphere and Communications

Module by: Don Johnson. E-mail the author

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Name: The Ionosphere and Communications
ID: m0539
Language: English (en)
Summary: Describes the ionosphere's reflection of signals.
Subject: Science and Technology
Keywords: communication channels, Heaviside, information communication, ionosphere, Marconi, transatlantic communication, transmission, wireless
Document Type: -//CNX//DTD CNXML 0.5 plus MathML//EN
License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 1.0

Authors: Don Johnson (
Copyright Holders: Don Johnson (
Maintainers: Melissa Selik (, Don Johnson (, John Cottrell (

Latest version: 2.10 (history)
First publication date: Aug 11, 2000 12:00 am -0500
Last revision to module: Apr 25, 2005 8:42 pm -0500


PDF: m0539_2.10.pdf PDF file, for viewing content offline and printing. Learn more.
XML: m0539_2.10.cnxml XML that defines the structure and contents of the module, minus any included media files. Can be reimported in the editing interface. Learn more.

Version History

Version: 2.10 Apr 25, 2005 8:42 pm -0500 by Charlet Reedstrom
update to cxnml-0.5

Version: 2.9 Aug 18, 2004 10:40 am -0500 by Adan Galvan
 added space

Version: 2.8 Aug 13, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
Upgraded to 0.4.

Version: 2.7 Aug 4, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
Fixed minor typos.

Version: 2.6 May 10, 2002 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
wrapped msub in ci

Version: 2.5 Sep 11, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by Brent Hendricks
Converted to CNXML 0.3.5

Version: 2.4 Aug 23, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
deletd some whitespaces.

Version: 2.3 Aug 20, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
change the last math expression.

Version: 2.2 Jul 17, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
added keywords
made John Cottrell a maintainer
fixed minor errors

Version: 2.1 Jun 1, 2001 12:00 am -0500 by (Unknown)
The usual.

Version: 2.0 Aug 11, 2000 12:00 am -0500 by Brent Hendricks
Bumped version to 2.0

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How to Cite and Attribute This Content

The following citation styles comply with the attribution requirements for the license (CC-BY 1.0) of this work:

American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

Johnson, D. The Ionosphere and Communications, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Apr 25, 2005.

American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

Johnson D. The Ionosphere and Communications [OpenStax-CNX Web site]. April 25, 2005. Available at:

American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

Johnson, D. (2005, April 25). The Ionosphere and Communications. Retrieved from the OpenStax-CNX Web site:

Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

Johnson, Don. "The Ionosphere and Communications." OpenStax-CNX. April 25, 2005.

Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

Don Johnson, "The Ionosphere and Communications," OpenStax-CNX, April 25, 2005,

Chicago Manual of Style (Reference, in Author-Date style):

Johnson, D. 2005. The Ionosphere and Communications. OpenStax-CNX, April 25, 2005.

Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

Johnson, Don. The Ionosphere and Communications. OpenStax-CNX. 25 Apr. 2005 <>.