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Lenses

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What are tags?

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

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Inside Collection (Course):

Course by: Tuan Do-Hong. E-mail the author

Channel Capacity

Module by: Behnaam Aazhang. E-mail the author

Summary: A discussion of channels and how much information can be sent through a channel reliably.

In the previous section, we discussed information sources and quantified information. We also discussed how to represent (and compress) information sources in binary symbols in an efficient manner. In this section, we consider channels and will find out how much information can be sent through the channel reliably.

We will first consider simple channels where the input is a discrete random variable and the output is also a discrete random variable. These discrete channels could represent analog channels with modulation and demodulation and detection.

Let us denote the input sequence to the channel as

X= X 1 X 2 X n X X 1 X 2 X n
(1)
where X i X ¯ X i X ¯ a discrete symbol set or input alphabet.

The channel output

Y= Y 1 Y 2 Y 3 Y n Y Y 1 Y 2 Y 3 Y n
(2)
where Y i Y ¯ Y i Y ¯ a discrete symbol set or output alphabet.

The statistical properties of a channel are determined if one finds p Y | X y | x p Y | X y | x for all y Y ¯ n y Y ¯ n and for all x X ¯ n x X ¯ n . A discrete channel is called a discrete memoryless channel if

p Y | X y | x = i =1n p Y i | X i y i | x i p Y | X y | x i 1 n p Y i | X i y i | x i
(3)
for all y Y ¯ n y Y ¯ n and for all x X ¯ n x X ¯ n .

Example 1

A binary symmetric channel (BSC) is a discrete memoryless channel with binary input and binary output and p Y | X y=0 | x=1 = p Y | X y=1 | x=0 p Y | X y=0 | x=1 p Y | X y=1 | x=0 . As an example, a white Gaussian channel with antipodal signaling and matched filter receiver has probability of error of Q2 E s N 0 Q 2 E s N 0 . Since the error is symmetric with respect to the transmitted bit, then

p Y | X 0 | 1 = p Y | X 1 | 0 =Q2 E s N 0 =ε p Y | X 0 | 1 p Y | X 1 | 0 Q 2 E s N 0 ε
(4)

It is interesting to note that every time a BSC is used one bit is sent across the channel with probability of error of εε. The question is how much information or how many bits can be sent per channel use, reliably. Before we consider the above question a few definitions are essential. These are discussed in mutual information.

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'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

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Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags?

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks

Module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags?

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks