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Module by: Behnaam Aazhang. E-mail the author

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Name: Second-order Description
ID: m10236
Language: English (en)
Summary: Describes signals that cannot be precisely characterized.
Subject: Science and Technology
Keywords: autocorrelation, autocovariance, crosscorrelation, mean, random process, stochastic process, wide sense stationary
Document Type: -//CNX//DTD CNXML 0.5 plus MathML//EN
License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 1.0

Authors: Behnaam Aazhang (
Copyright Holders: Behnaam Aazhang (
Maintainers: Dinesh Rajan (, Mohammad Borran (, Roy Ha (, Shawn Stewart (, Behnaam Aazhang (

Latest version: 2.13 (history)
First publication date: Aug 6, 2001 12:00 am +0000
Last revision to module: Jan 7, 2005 10:42 am +0000


PDF: m10236_2.13.pdf PDF file, for viewing content offline and printing. Learn more.
XML: m10236_2.13.cnxml XML that defines the structure and contents of the module, minus any included media files. Can be reimported in the editing interface. Learn more.

Version History

Version: 2.13 Jan 7, 2005 10:42 am +0000 by Adan Galvan
fixed equation on autocovariance

Version: 2.12 Jan 6, 2005 2:57 pm +0000 by Charlet Reedstrom
removed makefile, made changes requested by author

Version: 2.11 May 19, 2004 11:30 am +0000 by Elizabeth Gregory
Updated to 0.5, added csymbols, and corrected some MathML problems.

Version: 2.10 Jan 28, 2004 2:53 pm +0000 by Elizabeth Gregory
 Added a subscript and corrected some <ci>/<mi> tags

Version: 2.9 Jan 7, 2004 10:11 am +0000 by Adan Galvan
added maintainer

Version: 2.8 Aug 14, 2002 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
mathml audit

Version: 2.7 Jul 15, 2002 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
1> change the version to 0.4.
2> change the &pi; problem.
3> change the -1 problem.

Version: 2.6 Feb 28, 2002 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
Corrections based on notes from class (i.e. expression conjugated when it should be, etc.)

Version: 2.5 Feb 9, 2002 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
Authors updated

Version: 2.4 Jan 10, 2002 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
Corrections as per instructions by Prof. Aazhang.

Version: 2.3 Dec 19, 2001 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
changed * to conjugate and looked at negative numbers

Version: 2.2 Dec 5, 2001 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
made modules print by fixing blank=

Version: 2.1 Aug 6, 2001 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
First draft of module

Version: 2.0 Aug 6, 2001 12:00 am +0000 by (Unknown)
Added initial template for new module m10236

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American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

Aazhang, B. Second-order Description, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jan 7, 2005.

American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

Aazhang B. Second-order Description [OpenStax-CNX Web site]. January 7, 2005. Available at:

American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

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Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

Aazhang, Behnaam. "Second-order Description." OpenStax-CNX. January 7, 2005.

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Behnaam Aazhang, "Second-order Description," OpenStax-CNX, January 7, 2005,

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Aazhang, B. 2005. Second-order Description. OpenStax-CNX, January 7, 2005.

Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

Aazhang, Behnaam. Second-order Description. OpenStax-CNX. 7 Jan. 2005 <>.