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Signals and Systems Problems

Module by: Don Johnson. E-mail the author

Summary: (Blank Abstract)

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Problem Set

Problem 1

Complex Number Arithmetic

Find the real part, imaginary part, the magnitude and angle of the complex numbers given by the following expressions.

  1. -1-1
  2. 1+3i2 1 3 2
  3. 1+i+eiπ2 1 2
  4. eiπ3+eiπ+e(iπ3) 3 3

Problem 2

Discovering Roots

Complex numbers expose all the roots of real (and complex) numbers. For example, there should be two square-roots, three cube-roots, etc. of any number. Find the following roots.

  1. What are the cube-roots of 27? In other words, what is 2713 27 1 3 ?
  2. What are the fifth roots of 3 ( 315 3 1 5 )?
  3. What are the fourth roots of one?

Problem 3

Cool Exponentials

Simplify the following (cool) expressions.

  1. ii
  2. i2i 2
  3. iii

Problem 4

Complex-valued Signals

Complex numbers and phasors play a very important role in electrical engineering. Solving systems for complex exponentials is much easier than for sinusoids, and linear systems analysis is particularly easy.

  1. Find the phasor representation for each, and re-express each as the real and imaginary parts of a complex exponential. What is the frequency (in Hz) of each? In general, are your answers unique? If so, prove it; if not, find an alternative answer for the complex exponential representation.
    1. 3sin24t 3 24 t
    2. 2cos2π60t+π4 2 2 60 t 4
    3. 2cost+π6+4sintπ3 2 t 6 4 t 3
  2. Show that for linear systems having real-valued outputs for real inputs, that when the input is the real part of a complex exponential, the output is the real part of the system's output to the complex exponential (see Figure 1). SAei2πft=SAei2πft S A 2 f t S A 2 f t

Figure 1
Figure 1 (sys28.png)

Problem 5

For each of the indicated voltages, write it as the real part of a complex exponential ( vt=Vest v t V s t ). Explicitly indicate the value of the complex amplitude VV and the complex frequency ss. Represent each complex amplitude as a vector in the VV-plane, and indicate the location of the frequencies in the complex ss-plane.

  1. vt=cos5t v t 5 t
  2. vt=sin8t+π4 v t 8 t 4
  3. vt=et v t t
  4. vt=e(3t)sin4t+3π4 v t 3t 4 t 3 4
  5. vt=5e(2t)sin8t+2π v t 5 2 t 8 t 2
  6. vt=-2 v t -2
  7. vt=4sin2t+3cos2t v t 4 2 t 3 2 t
  8. vt=2cos100πt+π63sin100πt+π2 v t 2 100 t 6 3 100 t 2

Problem 6

Express each of the following signals as a linear combination of delayed and weighted step functions and ramps (the integral of a step).

Figure 2
(a)
Figure 2(a) (sig1.png)
(b)
Figure 2(b) (sig2.png)
(c)
Figure 2(c) (sig3.png)
(d)
Figure 2(d) (sig4.png)
(e)
Figure 2(e) (sig5.png)

Problem 7

Linear, Time-Invariant Systems

When the input to a linear, time-invariant system is the signal xt xt , the output is the signal yt y t (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Figure 3 (sig34a.png)

  1. Find and sketch this system's output when the input is the depicted signal.
  2. Find and sketch this system's output when the input is a unit step.

Figure 4
Figure 4 (sig34b.png)

Problem 8

Linear Systems

The depicted input xt x t to a linear, time-invariant system yields the output yt y t .

Figure 5
Figure 5 (sig39.png)

  1. What is the system's output to a unit step input ut u t ?
  2. What will the output be when the input is the depicted square wave?

Figure 6
Figure 6 (sig40.png)

Problem 9

Communication Channel

A particularly interesting communication channel can be modeled as a linear, time-invariant system. When the transmitted signal xt xt is a pulse, the received signal rt rt is as shown.

Figure 7
Figure 7 (sig45a.png)
  1. What will be the received signal when the transmitter sends the pulse sequence x 1 t x 1 t ?
  2. What will be the received signal when the transmitter sends the pulse signal x 2 t x 2 t that has half the duration as the original?
Figure 8
Figure 8 (sig45b.png)

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