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# Chapter 3 Problems

Module by: Erin Snavely, Don Johnson. E-mail the authors

Summary: Problems Dealing with Analog Signal Processing

Note: You are viewing an old version of this document. The latest version is available here.

## Problem 1

### Solving Simple Circuits

1. Write the set of equations that govern this Circuit A's behavior.
2. Solve these equations for i 1 i 1 : In other words, express this current in terms of element and source values by eliminating non-source voltages and currents.
3. For the Circuit B, find the value for R L R L that results in a current of 5 A passing through it.
Answer not provided.

## Problem 2

### Equivalent Resistance

For each of the following circuits, find the equivalent resistance using series and parallel combination rules.

Calculate the conductance seen at the terminals for the circuit (c) in terms of each element's conductance. Compare this equivalent conductance formula with the equivalent resistance formula you found for circuit (b). How is the circuit in (c) derived from the one given by (b)?

Answer not provided

## Problem 3

### Superposition Principle

One of the most important consequences of circuit laws is the Superposition Principal: The current or voltage defined for any element equals the sum of the currents or voltages produced in the element by the independent sources. This Principle has important consequences in simplifying the calculation of ciruit variables in multiple source circuits.

1. For the depicted circuit, find the indicated current using any technique you like (you should use the simplest).
2. You should have found that the current ii is a linear combination of the two source values: i= C 1 v in + C 2 i in i C 1 v in C 2 i in . This result means that we can think of the current as a superposition of two components, each of which is due to a source. We can find each component by setting the other sources to zero. Thus, to find the voltage source component, you can set the current source to zero (an open circuit) and use the usual tricks. To find the current source component, you would set the coltage wource to zero (a short circuit) and find the resulting current. Calculate the total current ii using the Superposition Principle. Is applying the Superposition Principle easier than the technique you used in part (a)?
No answer provided.

## Problem 4

### Current and Voltage Divider

Use current of voltage divider rules to calculate the indicate circuit variable.

No answer provided.

## Problem 5

### Thévenin and Norton Equivalents

Find the Thévenin and Nortan equivalent circuits for the following circuits.

No answer provided.

## Problem 6

### Detective Work

In the depicted circuit, the circuit N 1 N 1 has the v-iv-i relation v 1 =3 i 1 +7 v 1 3 i 1 7 when i s =2 i s 2 .

1. Find the Thévenin equivalent circuit for circuit N 2 N 2 .
2. With i s =2 i s 2 , determine RR such that i 1 =-1 i 1 -1

No answer provided.

## Problem 7

### Transfer Functions

Find the transfer function relating the complex amplitudes of the indicated variable and the source. Plot the magnitude and phase of the transfer function.

No answer provided.

## Problem 8

### Using Impedances

Find the differential equation relating the indicated variable to the source(s) using impedances.

No answer provided.

## Problem 9

### Transfer Functions

In the following circuit, the voltage source equals vint=10sint2 vin t 10 t 2 .

1. Find the transfer function between the source and the indicated output voltage.
2. For the given source, find the output voltage.
No answer provided.

## Problem 10

### Circuit Design

1. Find the transfer function between the input and the output voltages.
2. At what frequency does the transfer function have a phase shift of zero? What is the circuit's gain at this frequency?
3. Specifications demand that this circuit have an output impedance (its equivalent impedance) less than 8Ω for frequencies above 1kHz, the frequency at which the transfer function is maximum. Find element values that satisfy this criterion.
No answer provided.

## Problem 11

### Sharing a Channel

Two transmitter-receiver pairs want to share the same digital communications channel. The transmitter signals will be added together by the channel. Receiver design is greatly simplified if first we remove the unwanted transmission (as much as possible). Each transmitter signal has the form xit=Asin2πfit xi t A 2 fi t where 0tT 0 t T where the amplitude is either zero or A and each transmitter uses its own frequency fifi. Each frequency is harmonically related to the bit interval duration T, with transmitter 1 using the the frequency 1T 1 T . The datarate is 10Mbps.

1. Draw a block diagram that expresses this communication scenario.
2. Find circuits that the receivers could employ to separate unwanted transmissions. Assume the received signal is a voltage and the output is to be a voltage as well.
3. Find the second transmitter's frequency so that the receivers can suppress the unwanted transmission by at least a factor of ten.

No answer provided.

## Problem 12

### Circuit Detective Work

In the lab, the open-circuit voltage measured across an unknown circuit's terminals equals sint t . When a 1Ω resistor is place across the terminals, a voltage of 12sint+π4 1 2 t 4 appears.

1. What is the Thévenin equivalent circuit?
2. What voltage will appear if we place a 1 F capacitor across the terminals?

No answer provided.

## Problem 13

### Linear, Time-Invariant Systems

For a system to be completely characterized by a transfer function, it needs not only be linar, but also to be time-invariant. A system is said to be time-invariant if delaying the input delays the output by the same amount. Mathematically, if Sxt=yt S x t y t , meaning yt y t is the output of a system S S when xt x t is the input, S S is the time-invariant if Sxtr=ytr S x t r y t r for all delays τ and all inputs xt x t . Note that both linear and nonlinear systems have this property. For example, a system that squares its input is time-invariant.

1. Show that if a circuit has fixed circuit elements (their values don't change over time), its input-output relationship is time-invariant. Hint: Consider the differential equation that describes a circuit's input-output relationship. What is its general form? Examine the derivative(s) of delayed signals.
2. Show that impedances cannot characterize time-varying circuit elements (R, L, and C). Consequently, show that linear, time-varying systems do not have a transfer function.
3. Determine the linearity and time-invariance of the following. Find the transfer function of the linear, time-invariant (LTI) one(s).
1. diode
2. yt=xtsin2πf0t y t x t 2 f0 t
3. yt=xtτ0 y t x t τ0
4. yt=xt+Nt y t x t N t

No answer provided.

## Problem 14

### Long and Sleepless Nights

Sammy went to lab after a long, sleepless night, and constructed the following circuit.

He can't remember what the circuit, represented by the impedance Z, was. Clearly, this forgotten circuit is important as the output is the current passing through it.

1. What is the Thévenin equivalent circuit seen by the impedance?
2. In searching his notes, Sammy finds that the circuit is to realize the transfer function Hf=1i10πf+2 H f 1 i 10 f 2 . Find the impedance Z as well as values for the other circuit elements.

No answer provided.

## Problem 15

### Mystery Circuit

You are given a circuit that has two terminals for attaching circuit elements.

When you attach a voltage source equaling sint t to the terminals, the current through the source equals 4sint+π42sin4t 4 t 4 2 4 t . When no source is attached (open-circuited terminals), the voltage across the terminals has the form Asin4t+φ A 4 t φ .

1. What will the terminal current be when you replace the source by a short circuit?
2. What are A and φ?
3. If you were to buil a circuit that was identical (from the viewpoint of the terminals) to the given one, what would your circuit be?

No answer provided.

## Problem 16

### Find the Load Impedance

The depicted circuit has a transfer function between the output voltage and the source equal to Hf=-8π2f28π2f2+4+j6πf H f -8 2 f 2 -8 2 f 2 4 j 6 f .

1. Sketch the magnitude and phase of the transfer function.
2. At what frequency does the phase equal π2 2 ?
3. Find a circuit that corresponds to this load impedance. Is your answer unique? If so, show it to be so; if not, give another example.
No answer provided.

## Problem 17

### Analog "Hum" Rejection

"Hum" refers to corruption from wall socket power that frequently sneaks into circuits. "Hum" gets its name because it sounds like a persistent humming sound. We want to find a circuit that will remove hum from any signal. A Rice engineer suggests using a simple voltage divider circuit consisting of two series impedances.

1. The impedance Z1 Z1 is a resistor. The Rice engineer must decide between two circuits for the impedance Z2 Z2. Which of these will work (see figure below)?
2. Picking one circuit that works, choose circuit element values that will remove hum.
3. Sketch the magnitude of the resulting frequency response.
No answer provided.

## Problem 18

### An Interesting Circuit

1. Find the circuit's transfer function.
2. What is the output voltage when the input has the form iin=5sin2000πt iin 5 2000 t ?
No answer provided.

## Problem 19

### An Interesting and Useful Circuit

The following circuit has interesting properties, which are exploited in high-performance oscilloscopes.

The portion of the circuit labeled "Oscilloscope" represents the scope's input impedance. R2=1 R2 1 and C2=30 pF C2 30 pF (note the label under the channel 1 input in the lab's oscilloscopes). A probe is a device to attach an oscilloscope to a circuit, and it has the indicated circuit inside it.

1. Suppose for a moment that the probe is merely a wire and that the oscilloscope is attached to a circuit that has a resistive Thévenin equivalent impedance. What would be the effect of the oscilloscope's input impedance on measured voltages?
2. Using the node method, find the transfer fucntion relating the indicated voltage to the source when the probe is used.
3. Plot the magnitude and phase of this transfer function when R1=9 R1 9 and C1=2 pF C1 2 pF .
4. For a particular relationship among the element values, the transfer function is quite simple. Find that relationship and describe what is so special about it.
5. The arrow through C1 C1 indicates that its value can be varied. Select the value for this capacitor to make the special relationship balid. What is the impedance seen by the circuit being measured for this special value?

No answer provided.

## Problem 20

### A Circuit Problem

You are given the following circuit.

1. Find the differential equation relating the output voltage to the source.
2. What is the impedance "seen" by the capacitor?
No answer provided.

## Problem 21

Find the voltage vout vout in each of the following circuits.

No answer provided.

## Problem 22

### Transfer Functions and Circuits

You are given the depicted network.

1. Find the transfer function between Vin Vin and Vout Vout .
2. Sketch the magnitude and phase of your transfer function. Label important frequency, amplitude and phase values.
3. Find vout t voutt when vint=sint2+π4 vin t t 2 4 .
No answer provided.

## Problem 23

### Fun in the Lab

You are given an unopenable box that has two terminals sticking out. You assume the box contains a circuit. You measure the voltage sint+π4 t 4 across the terminals when nothing is connected to them and the current 2cost 2 t when you place a wire across the terminals.

1. Find a circuit that has these characteristics.
2. You attach a 1 H inductor across the terminals. What voltage do you measure?

No answer provided.

## Problem 24

### Operational Amplifiers

Find the transfer function between the source voltage(s) and the indicated output voltage.

No answer provided.

## Problem 25

### Why Op-Amps are Useful

The following circuit of a cascade of op-amp circuits illustrate the reason why op-amp realizations of transfer functions are so useful.

1. Find the transfer function relating the complex amplitude of the voltage voutt vout t to the source. Show that this transfer function equals the product of each stage's transfer function.
2. What is the load impedance appearing across the first op-amp's output?
3. The following illustrates that sometimes "designs" can go wrong (see below). Find the transfer function for this op-amp circuit, and then show that it can't work! Why can't it?
No answer provided.

## Problem 26

### Operational Amplifiers

Consider the following circuit.

1. Find the transfer function relating the voltage voutt vout t to the source.
2. In particular, R1=530Ω R1 530 Ω , C1=1μF C1 1 μF , R2=5.3 R2 5.3 , C2=0.01μF C2 0.01 μF , and R3,R45.3 R3 , R4 5.3 . Characterize the resulting transfer function and determine what use this circuit might have.
No answer provided.

## Problem 27

### Designing a Bandpass Filter

We want to design a bandpass filter that has transfer the function Hf=10j2πf(jffl+1)(jffh+1) H f 10 j 2 f j f fl 1 j f fh 1 . Here, fl fl is the cutoff frequency of the low-frequency edge of the passband and fh fh is the cutoff frequency of the high-frequency edge. we want fl=1kHz fl 1 kHz and fh=10kHz fh 10 kHz .

1. Plot the magnitude and phase of this frequency response. Label important amplitude and phase values and the frequency response. Label important amplitude and phase values and the frequencies at which they occur.
2. Design a bandpass filter that meets these specifications. Specify component values.

No answer provided.

## Problem 28

### Active Filter

Find the transfer function of the depicted active filter.

No answer provided.

## Problem 29

### This is a filter?

You are given the following circuit.

1. What is this circuit's transfer function? Plot the magnitude and phase.
2. If the input signal is the sinusoid sin2πf0t 2 f0 t , what will the output be when f0 f0 is larger than the filter's "cutoff frequency"?
No answer provided.

## Problem 30

### Optical Receivers

In you optical telephone, the receiver circuit had the following form:

This circuit served as a transducer, converting light energy into a voltage vout vout . The photodiode acts as a current source, producing a current proportional to the light intesity falling upon it. As is often the case in this crucial stage, the signals are small and noise can be a problem. Thus, the op-amp stage serves to boost the signal and to filter out-of-band noise.

1. Find the transfer function relating light intensity to vout vout .
2. What should the circuit realizing the feedback impedance Zf Zf be so that the transducer acts as a 5 kHz lowpass filter?
3. A clever engineer suggests an alternative circuit to accomplish the same task. Determine whether the idea works or not. If it does, find the impedance Zin Zin that accomplishes the lowpass filtering task. If not, show why it does not work.

No answer provided.

## Problem 31

### Rectifying Amplifier

The following circuit has been designed by a clever engineer. For positive voltages, the diode acts like a short circuit and for negative voltages like an open circuit.

1. How is the output related to the input?
2. Does this circuit have a transfer function? If so, find it; if not, why not?
No answer provided.

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