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# Uniformally Modulated (DFT) Filterbank

Module by: Phil Schniter. E-mail the author

Summary: This module covers the Uniformally Modulated Filterbanks.

The uniform modulated filterbank can be implemented using polyphase filterbanks and DFTs, resulting in huge computational savings. Figure 1 below illustrates the equivalent polyphase/DFT structures for analysis and synthesis. The impulse responses of the polyphase filters P l z P l z and P ¯ l z P ¯ l z can be defined in the time domain as p ¯ l m= h ¯ mM+l p ¯ l m h ¯ m M l and p l m=hmM+l p l m h m M l , where hn h n and h ¯ n h ¯ n denote the impulse responses of the analysis and synthesis lowpass filters, respectively.

Recall that the standard implementation performs modulation, filtering, and downsampling, in that order. The polyphase/DFT implementation reverses the order of these operations; it performs downsampling, then filtering, then modulation (if we interpret the DFT as a two-dimensional bank of "modulators"). We derive the polyphase/DFT implementation below, starting with the standard implementation and exchanging the order of modulation, filtering, and downsampling.

## Polyphase/DFT Implementation Derivation

We start by analyzing the kkth filterbank branch, analyzed in Figure 2:

The first step is to reverse the modulation and filtering operations. To do this, we define a "modulated filter" H k z H k z :

vk n=ihixniej2πMk(ni)= ihie(j)2πMkixni ej2πMkn= i hk ixni ej2πMkn vk n i h i x n i j 2 M k n i i h i j 2 M k i x n i j 2 M k n i hk i x n i j 2 M k n
(1)
xn xn is convolved with the modulated filter and that the filter output is modulated. This is illustrated in Figure 3:

Notice that the only modulator outputs not discarded by the downsampler are those with time index n=mM n m M for mZ m . For these outputs, the modulator has the value ej2πMkmM=1 j 2 M k m M 1 , and thus it can be ignored. The resulting system is portrayed by:

Next we would like to reverse the order of filtering and downsampling. To apply the Noble identity, we must decompose H k z H k z into a bank of upsampled polyphase filters. The technique used to derive polyphase decimation can be employed here:

Hk z= n = hk nzn= l =0M1 m = h k mM+lz(mM+l) Hk z n hk n z n l 0 M 1 m h k m M l z m M l
(2)
Noting the fact that the llth polyphase filter has impulse response: h k mM+l=hmM+le-j2πM(k(mM+l))=hmM+le-j2πMkl= p l me-j2πMkl h k m M l h m M l -j 2 M k m M l h m M l -j 2 M k l p l m -j 2 M k l where p l m p l m is the llth polyphase filter defined by the original (unmodulated) lowpass filter Hz Hz , we obtain
Hk z= l =0M1 m = p l me-j2πMklz(mM+l)= l =0M1e-j2πMklzl m = p l mzMm= l =0M1e-j2πMklzl P l zM Hk z l 0 M 1 m p l m -j 2 M k l z m M l l 0 M 1 -j 2 M k l z l m p l m z M m l 0 M 1 -j 2 M k l z l P l z M
(3)
kkth filterbank branch (now containing MM polyphase branches) is in Figure 5:

Because it is a linear operator, the downsampler can be moved through the adders and the (time-invariant) scalings e(j)2πMkl j 2 M k l . Finally, the Noble identity is employed to exchange the filtering and downsampling. The kkth filterbank branch becomes:

Observe that the polyphase outputs v l m v l m l=0M1 v l m l 0 M 1 v l m are identical for each filterbank branch, while the scalings e(j)2πMkl l=0M1 j 2 M k l l 0 M 1 once. Using these outputs we can compute the branch outputs via

y k m= l =0M1 v l me(j)2πMkl y k m l 0 M 1 v l m j 2 M k l
(4)
From the previous equation it is clear that y k m y k m corresponds to the kkth DFT output given the MM-point input sequence v l m l=0M1 v l m l 0 M 1 . Thus the MM filterbank branches can be computed in parallel by taking an MM-point DFT of the MM polyphase outputs (see Figure 7).

The polyphase/DFT synthesis bank can be derived in a similar manner.

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