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Duration: Notes Lengths in Written Music

Module by: Catherine Schmidt-Jones. E-mail the author

Summary: In standard music notation, the duration (time length) of a particular note is defined by how long it lasts compared to a whole note.

Note: You are viewing an old version of this document. The latest version is available here.

The Shape of a Note

In standard notation, a single musical sound is written as a note. The two most important things a written piece of music needs to tell you about a note are its pitch - how high or low it is - and its duration - how long it lasts.

To find out the pitch of a written note, you look at the clef and the key signature, then see what line or space the note is on. The higher a note sits on the staff, the higher it sounds. To find out the duration of the written note, you look at the tempo and the time signature and then see what the note looks like.

Figure 1: All of the parts of a written note affect how long it lasts.
The Parts of a Note
The Parts of a Note (notes1.png)

The pitch of the note depends only on what line or space the head of the note is on. (Please see pitch , clef and key signature for more information.) If the note does not have a head, that means that it does not have one definite pitch.

Figure 2: If a note does not have a head, it does not have a definite pitch. Such a note may be a pitchless sound, like a drum beat or a hand clap, or it may be an entire chord rather than a single note.
Notes Without Heads
Notes Without Heads (headless1.png)

The head of the note may be filled in (black), or not. The note may also have (or not) a stem, one or more flags, beams connecting it to other notes, or one or more dots following the head of the note. All of these things affect how much time the note is given in the music.

Note:

A dot that is someplace other than next to the head of the note does not affect rhythm. Other dots are articulation marks. They may affect the length of the note, but do not affect the rhythm; they do not affect the amount of time the note is given in the music. If this is confusing, please see the explanation in articulation.

The Length of a Note

Figure 3
Most Common Note Lengths
Most Common Note Lengths (notes2.png)

The simplest-looking note, with no stems or flags, is a whole note. All other note lengths are defined by how long they last compared to a whole note. A note that lasts half as long as a whole note is a half note. A note that lasts a quarter as long as a whole note is a quarter note. The pattern continues with eighth notes, sixteenth notes, thirty-second notes, sixty-fourth notes, and so on, each type of note being half the length of the previous type. (There are no such thing as third notes, sixth notes, tenth notes, etc.; see below to find out how notes of unusual lengths are written.)

Figure 4: Note lengths work just like fractions in arithmetic: two half notes or four quarter notes last the same amount of time as one whole note.
Figure 4 (notes3.png)

You may have noticed in the figure above that some of the eighth notes don't have flags; instead they have a beam connecting them to another eighth note. If flagged notes are next to each other, their flags can be replaced by beams that connect the notes into easy-to-read groups. Each note will have the same number of beams as it would have flags.

Figure 5: The notes connected with beams are easier to read quickly than the flagged notes. Notice that each note has the same number of beams as it would have flags, even if it is connected to a different type of note. The notes are often (but not always) connected so that each beamed group gets one beat.
Notes with Beams
Notes with Beams (notes4.png)

You may have also noticed that the note lengths sound like fractions in arithmetic. In fact they work very much like fractions: two half notes will be equal to (last as long as) one whole note; four eighth notes will be the same length as one half note; and so on. (For classroom activities relating music to fractions, see Fractions, Multiples, Beats, and Measures.)

Example 1

Figure 6
Figure 6 (notes5a.png)

Exercise 1

Draw the missing notes and fill in the blanks to make each side the same duration (length of time).

Figure 7
Figure 7 (noteprob1.png)

Solution

Figure 8
Figure 8 (notesolv1.png)

So how long does each of these notes actually last? That depends on a couple of things. A written note lasts for a certain amount of time measured in beats. To find out exactly how many beats it takes, you must know the time signature. And to find out how long a beat is, you need to know the tempo.

Example 2

Figure 9: In any particular section of a piece of music, a half note is always twice as long as a quarter note. But how fast each note actually is depends on the time signature and the tempo.
Figure 9 (note-examp.png)

More about Stems

Whether a stem points up or down does not affect the note length at all. Usually notes with heads below the middle of the staff are stem up; notes on or above the middle line of the staff tend to be stem down. There are many exceptions to this rule, however. For example, if parts for two different people are written on the same staff, one part will be stem up and the other part stem down.

Figure 10
Figure 10 (notes10.png)

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