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# Discrete-Time Processing of CT Signals

Module by: Robert Nowak. E-mail the author

Summary: The module will provide analysis and examples of how a continuous-time signal is converted to a digital signal and processed.

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## DT Processing of CT Signals

### Analysis

Y c Ω= H LP ΩYΩT Y c Ω H LP Ω Y Ω T
(1)
where we know that Yω=XωGω Y ω X ω G ω and Gω G ω is the frequency response of the DT LTI system. Also, remember that ωΩT ω Ω T So,
Y c Ω= H LP ΩGΩTXΩT Y c Ω H LP Ω G Ω T X Ω T
(2)
where Y c Ω Y c Ω and H LP Ω H LP Ω are CTFTs and GΩT G Ω T and XΩT X Ω T are DTFTs.

#### Recall:

Xω=2πT k = X c ω2πkT X ω 2 T k X c ω 2 k T OR XΩT=2πT k = X c Ωk Ω s X Ω T 2 T k X c Ω k Ω s
Therefore our final output signal, Y c Ω Y c Ω , will be:
Y c Ω= H LP ΩGΩT(2πT k = X c Ωk Ω s ) Y c Ω H LP Ω G Ω T 2 T k X c Ω k Ω s
(3)
Now, if X c Ω X c Ω is bandlimited to Ω s 2 Ω s 2 Ω s 2 Ω s 2 and we use the usual lowpass reconstruction filter in the D/A, Figure 2:

Then,

Y c Ω={GΩT X c Ω  if  |Ω|< Ω s 20  otherwise   Y c Ω G Ω T X c Ω Ω Ω s 2 0
(4)

### Summary

For bandlimited signals sampled at or above the Nyquist rate, we can relate the input and output of the DSP system by:

Y c Ω= G eff Ω X c Ω Y c Ω G eff Ω X c Ω
(5)
where G eff Ω={GΩT  if  |Ω|< Ω s 20  otherwise   G eff Ω G Ω T Ω Ω s 2 0

#### Note

G eff Ω G eff Ω is LTI if and only if the following two conditions are satisfied:

1. Gω G ω is LTI (in DT).
2. X c T X c T is bandlimited and sampling rate equal to or greater than Nyquist. For example, if we had a simple pulse described by X c t=ut T 0 ut T 1 X c t u t T 0 u t T 1 where T 1 > T 0 T 1 T 0 . If the sampling period T> T 1 T 0 T T 1 T 0 , then some samples might "miss" the pulse while others might not be "missed." This is what we term time-varying behavior.

### Example 1

If 2πT>2B 2 T 2 B and ω 1 <BT ω 1 B T , determine and sketch Y c Ω Y c Ω using Figure 4.

## Application: 60Hz Noise Removal

Unfortunately, in real-world situations electrodes also pick up ambient 60 Hz signals from lights, computers, etc.. In fact, usually this "60 Hz noise" is much greater in amplitude than the EKG signal shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the EKG signal; it is barely noticeable as it has become overwhelmed by noise.

### Sampling Period/Rate

First we must note that |YΩ| Y Ω is bandlimited to ±60 Hz. Therefore, the minimum rate should be 120 Hz. In order to get the best results we should set f s =240Hz f s 240 Hz . Ω s =2π×(240rads) Ω s 2 240 rad s

### Digital Filter

Therefore, we want to design a digital filter that will remove the 60Hz component and preserve the rest.

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