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LSI/LTI Systems

Module by: Richard Baraniuk. E-mail the author

Summary: Introduction to LSI/LTI systems.

Definition 1: linear shift invariant system
A linear shift invariant system is one that is both:
  • linear
  • shift invariant
Also known as LSI, LTI (Figure 1).
Figure 1
All Systems
All Systems (systems.png)

Note:

LSI systems are the bread 'n' budduh of DSP (Figure 2).
Figure 2
Figure 2 (bread.png)

Characterizing LSI Systems

1.

Since the system is linear, it can be represented as a matrix multiply (Figure 3).

Figure 3: xCN x N , yCN y N , and is an N×N N N complex matrix.
Figure 3 (matmult.png)

2.

Since is shift invariant, it cannot be just any old matrix. Its values are highly constrained.

In particular we know that

C - m C m = C - m C m
(1)
Let's understand this...

Understanding Conditions on Matrix ℋ for Shift Invariance

Recall Figure 3.

yn= ( row n of | x ) = ( h n r | x ) y n ( row n of | x ) ( h n r | x )
(2)
y=x y x
·=( ) ·
(3)
where the · is in the nth n th row.

Now shift x x down circularly m m units. If the system is SI then y y will also shift down circularly m m units. i.e.: C m y= C m x C m y C m x

·=( ) ·
(4)
where the · is in the nth n th row, the ▪ is in the n+mth n m th row, and the ↓ has been shifted down circularly mm units.

Key: we want the value ▪ in C m y C m y to equal the · value in yy.

This implies that the rows of must circularly shift as we shift xx and yy. i.e.: row n+m n m of is equal to the circular shift right of row nn of by mm. i.e.: h n + m r = h n r C m T h n + m r h n r C m i.e.: all rows of are circular shifts of each other.

Example 1

y 0 y 1 y 2 =( 147 258 369 ) x 0 x 1 x 2 y 0 y 1 y 2 1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9 x 0 x 1 x 2 LSI also needs m=1 m 1 : y 2 y 0 y 1 =( 147 258 369 ) x 2 x 0 x 1 y 2 y 0 y 1 1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9 x 2 x 0 x 1 and m=2 m 2 : y 1 y 2 y 0 =( 147 258 369 ) x 1 x 2 x 0 y 1 y 2 y 0 1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9 x 1 x 2 x 0 i.e.: 1=5=9 1 5 9 2=6=7 2 6 7 3=4=8 3 4 8 =( 132 213 321 ) 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1

is called a circulant matrix.

  • each row is a circulary shifted version of the row above (right).
  • each column is a circularly shifted version of the column to the left (down).
=( 132 213 321 )= h 0 r h 0 r C 1 T h 0 r C N - 1 T=( h 0 c C 1 h 0 c C N - 1 h 0 c ) 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 h 0 r h 0 r C 1 h 0 r C N - 1 h 0 c C 1 h 0 c C N - 1 h 0 c
(5)
which implies that either the first row or first column are all you need to know to know all of .

Note:

Circulant matrices are a special case of Toeplitz matrices, which are constant along diagonals. e.g.: T=( )=( 1356 2135 4213 7421 ) T 1 3 5 6 2 1 3 5 4 2 1 3 7 4 2 1 Tn,k=tnk T n k t n k

Example 2

Also, row nn, column kk element of is

n,k=h(nk)modN n k h n k N
(6)
where 0nN1 0 n N 1 and 0kN1 0 k N 1 and h h is the signal corresponding to the first (i.e. the zeroth!) column of .

Example 3

N=2 N 2 , h 0 c =-173T h 0 c -1 7 3

=( h(00)modNh(01)modNh(02)modN h(10)modNh(11)modNh(12)modN h(20)modNh(21)modNh(22)modN )=( h0h2h1 h1h0h2 h2h1h0 ) h 0 0 N h 0 1 N h 0 2 N h 1 0 N h 1 1 N h 1 2 N h 2 0 N h 2 1 N h 2 2 N h 0 h 2 h 1 h 1 h 0 h 2 h 2 h 1 h 0
(7)

Example 4

Apply a 3-point moving average smoother to a signal x=( -2-101210-1 ) x -2 -1 0 1 2 1 0 -1 .

Figure 4: R8 8 .
Figure 4 (smoother.png)
In Figure 4,
yn=1x(n1)modN+2xn+3x(n+1)modN y n 1 x n 1 N 2 x n 3 x n 1 N
(8)
y=( 23000001 12300000 01230000 00123000 00012300 00001230 00000123 30000012 )-2-101210-1=-8-42884-2-8 y 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2 1 0 -1 -8 -4 2 8 8 4 -2 -8
(9)

The relationship between rows and columns of :

n,k=h(nk)modN n k h n k N
(10)
where nn is the row, kk is the column, and 0nN1 0 n N 1 and 0kN1 0 k N 1 .

Note:

Rows and columns run time in reverse order!!!

Example 5

R4 4

y0y1y2y3=( 2301 1230 0123 3012 )x0x1x2x3 y 0 y 1 y 2 y 3 2 3 0 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 2 3 3 0 1 2 x 0 x 1 x 2 x 3
(11)
where the zeroth column, 2103 2 1 0 3 , is the impulse response, hn h n (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Reponse to impulse at n=0 n 0 : 2 comes out, then 1, then 0, ….
Figure 5 (impulse.png)
In Equation 11, the zeroth row, ( 2301 ) 2 3 0 1 , is the time-reversed impulse response, hk h k .

Upshot for LSI Systems

Figure 6: The impulse response; the zeroth column of .
Figure 6 (impulse0.png)
Figure 7: The shifted impulse response. Here, δ 1 δ 1 is a shifted impulse.
Figure 7 (impulse1.png)
Figure 8: The m-shifted impulse response. Here, C m δ 0 C m δ 0 is an m-shifted impulse.
Figure 8 (impulsem.png)
i.e.: if we input Figure 6 and measure output h 0 c h 0 c , we can place it in the zeroth column of and then replicate it with circular shifts to build the entire !!

Summary: LSI Systems and Imuplse Response

Given an LSI system (Figure 3), we can characterize it by the impulse response, hh (Figure 9).

Figure 9
Figure 9 (response.png)
and build up with circular shifts of the zeroth column, hh:
=( h C 1 h C N - 1 h ) h C 1 h C N - 1 h
(12)
Then we can compute y y for any input xCN x N through
y=x y x
(13)

Exercise 1

How to get the impulse response?

4-point edge detector for 8-point signals in complex space (Figure 10).

Figure 10
Figure 10 (edge.png)

1.a)

h h =

1.b)

=

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