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Power-of-two FFTs

Module by: Douglas L. Jones. E-mail the author

Summary: FFTs of length equal to a power of two are by far the most commonly used. Radix-2 decimation-in-time and decimation-in-frequency algorithms are the simplest power-of-two algorithms. Radix-4 and higher-radix algorithms require somewhat fewer complex multiplications but the same number of complex additions. The split-radix algorithm requires fewer complex multiplies than other power-of-two algorithms.

FFTs of length N=2M N 2 M equal to a power of two are, by far, the most commonly used. These algorithms are very efficient, relatively simple, and a single program can compute power-of-two FFTs of different lengths. As with most FFT algorithms, they gain their efficiency by computing all DFT points simultaneously through extensive reuse of intermediate computations; they are thus efficient when many DFT frequency samples are needed. The simplest power-of-two FFTs are the decimation-in-time radix-2 FFT and the decimation-in-frequency radix-2 FFT; they reduce the length- N=2M N 2 M DFT to a series of length-2 DFT computations with twiddle-factor complex multiplications between them. The radix-4 FFT algorithm similarly reduces a length- N=4M N 4 M DFT to a series of length-4 DFT computations with twiddle-factor multiplies in between. Radix-4 FFTs require only 75% as many complex multiplications as the radix-2 algorithms, although the number of complex additions remains the same. Radix-8 and higher-radix FFT algorithms can be derived using multi-dimensional index maps to reduce the computational complexity a bit more. However, the split-radix algorithm and its recent extensions combine the best elements of the radix-2 and radix-4 algorithms to obtain lower complexity than either or than any higher radix, requiring only two-thirds as many complex multiplies as the radix-2 algorithms. All of these algorithms obtain huge savings over direct computation of the DFT, reducing the complexity from ON2 O N 2 to ONlogN O N N .

The efficiency of an FFT implementation depends on more than just the number of computations. Efficient FFT programming tricks can make up to a several-fold difference in the run-time of FFT programs. Alternate FFT structures can lead to a more convenient data flow for certain hardware. As discussed in choosing the best FFT algorithm, certain hardware is designed for, and thus most efficient for, FFTs of specific lengths or radices.

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Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags?

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

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