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# Concurrent Processes: Basic Issues: Homework Exercises

Module by: John Greiner, Ian Barland, Moshe Vardi. E-mail the authors

## Exercise 1

Assume we have two concurrent threads/processes, each with simple straight-line code and sharing a global variable x. Assume that each individual statement is atomic.


2  {
3    x=0
4    x=x+1
5  }

7  {
8    x=0
9    x=x+1
10    x=x+2
11  }


Without using SPIN, give one trace illustrating each of the possible final values of x.

### Solution

There are three possible final values of x: 1, 3, 4.

## Exercise 2

Answer the previous exercise, except with different atomicity. Assume that each variable lookup, variable assignment, and addition are atomic, as in a typical machine language. Specifically, use the following code:


2  {
3    x  =  0
4    r0 =  x
5    r0 += 1
6    x  =  r0
7  }

9  {
10    x  =  0
11    r1 =  x
12    r1 += 1
13    x  =  r1
14    r1 =  x
15    r1 += 2
16    x  =  r1
17  }


### Solution

The values 1, 3, and 4 are possible as before. It should be clear that values greater than 4 are impossible, since at most a total of 4 can ever be added. Similarly, values less than 1 are impossible, since at least 1 is added after the last variable lookup. So, we're left with the question of whether 2 is a possible result. It is, and one possible trace is given.

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