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曹丕 典論論文

Module by: Wei-Cheng Wong. E-mail the author

Summary: 魏‧曹丕「典論論文」摘錄。

典論論文 曹丕

文人相輕,自古而然。傅毅之於班固,伯仲之間耳;而固小之,與弟超書曰:「武仲以能屬文為蘭臺令史,下筆不能自休。」夫人善於自見,而文非一體,鮮能備善,是以各以所長,相輕所短。里語曰:「家有弊帚,享之千金。」斯不自見之患也。今之文人:魯國孔雿文舉、廣陵陳琳孔璋、山陽王粲仲宣、北海徐幹偉長、陳留阮瑀元瑜、汝南應瑒德璉、東平劉楨公幹,斯七子者,於學無所遺,於辭無所假,咸自以騁驥騄於千里,仰齊足而並馳。以此相服,亦良難矣!蓋君子審己以度人,故能免於斯累,而作論文。

王粲長於辭賦,徐幹時有齊氣,然粲之匹也。如粲之初征、登樓、槐賦、征思,幹之玄猿、漏卮、圓扇、橘賦,雖張、蔡不過也。然於他文,未能稱是。琳、瑀之章表書記,今之雋也。應瑒和而不壯;劉楨壯而不密。孔融體氣高妙,有過人者;然不能持論,理不勝辭;以至乎雜以嘲戲;及其所善,揚、班儔也。

常人貴遠賤近,向聲背實,又患闇於自見,謂己為賢。夫文本同而末異,蓋奏議宜雅,書論宜理,銘誄尚實,詩賦欲麗。此四科不同,故能之者偏也;唯通才能備其體。

文以氣為主,氣之清濁有體,不可力強而致。譬諸音樂,曲度雖均,節奏同檢,至於引氣不齊,巧拙有素,雖在父兄,不能以移子弟。

蓋文章,經國之大業,不朽之盛事。年壽有時而盡,榮樂止乎其身,二者必至之常期,未若文章之無窮。是以古之作者,寄身於翰墨,見意於篇籍,不假良史之辭,不託飛馳之勢,而聲名自傳於後。故西伯幽而演易,周旦顯而禮,不以隱約而弗務,不以康樂而加思。夫然,則古人賤尺璧而重寸陰,懼乎時之過已。而人多不強力;貧賤則懾於饑寒,富貴則流於逸樂,遂營目前之務,而遺千載之功。日月逝於上,體貌衰於下,忽然與萬物遷化,斯志士之大痛也!融等已逝,唯幹著論,成一家言。

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