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李斯 諫逐客書

Module by: Wei-Cheng Wong. E-mail the author

Summary: 戰國‧李斯「諫逐客書」摘錄。

諫逐客書 李斯

秦宗室大臣皆言秦王曰:「諸侯人來事秦者,祇為其主遊間秦耳,請一切逐客。」李斯議亦在逐中。斯乃上書曰:「臣聞吏議逐客,竊以為過矣。」

「昔穆公求士,西取由余於戎,東得百里奚於宛,迎蹇叔於宋,求丕豹,公孫支於晉。此五子者,不產於秦,而穆公用之,井國二十,遂霸西戎。孝公用商鞅之法,移風易俗,民以殷盛,國以富彊,百姓樂用,諸侯親服獲楚,魏之師,舉地千里,至今治強。惠王用張儀之計,拔三川之地,西井巴蜀,北收上郡,南取漢中。包九夷,制鄢郢,東據成皋之險,割膏腴之壤,遂散六國之從,使之西面事秦,功施到今。昭王得范雎,廢穰侯,逐華陽,強公室,杜私門,蠶食諸侯,使秦成帝業。此四君者,皆以客之功。由此觀之,客何負於秦哉!向使四君卻客而不內,疏士而不與,是使國無富利之實,而秦無強大之名也。」

「今陛下致昆山之玉,有隨和之寶,垂明月之珠,服太阿之劍,乘纖離之馬,建翠鳳之旗,樹靈鼉之鼓:此數寶者,秦不生一焉,而陛下說之,何也?必秦國之所生然後可,則是夜光之璧,不飾朝廷;犀象之器,不為玩好;鄭衛之女,不充後官;而駿馬駃騠,不實外廄;江南金錫不為用;西蜀丹青不為采。所以飾後官,充下陳,娛心意,說耳目者,必出於秦然後可,則是宛珠之簪,傅璣之珥,阿縞之衣?錦繡之飾,不進於前;而隨俗雅化,佳冶窈窕,趙女不立於側也。夫擊甕叩缶,彈箏搏髀,而歌呼嗚嗚快耳者,真秦之聲也;鄭衛桑間,韶虞武象者,異國之樂也。今棄擊甕而就鄭衛,退彈箏而取韶虞,若是者何也?快意當前,適觀而已矣。今取人則不然,不問可否,不論曲直,非秦者去,為客者逐,然則是所重者在乎笆樂珠玉,而所輕者在乎人民也。此非所以跨海內,致諸侯之術也。」

「臣聞地廣者粟多,國大者人眾,兵強者士勇。是以泰山不讓士壤,故能成其大;河海不擇細流,故能就其深;王者不卻眾庶,故能明其德。是以地無四,方民無異國,四時充美,鬼神降福。此五帝,三王之所以無敵也。今乃棄黔首以資敵國,卻賓客以業諸侯,使天下之士退而不敢西向,裹足不入秦,此所謂『藉寇兵而齎盜糧』者也。」

「夫物不產於秦,可寶者多;士不產於秦,而願忠者眾。今逐客以資敵國,損民以益讎,內自虛而外樹怨於諸侯,求國無危,不可得也。」

秦王乃除逐客之令,復李斯官。

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