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  • TEC Music Theory Resources display tagshide tags

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    By: Cynthia FaisstAs a part of collection: "Music, Waves, Physics"

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Talking about Sound and Music

Module by: Catherine Schmidt-Jones, Nelson Lee. E-mail the authors

Based on: Talking about Sound and Music by Catherine Schmidt-Jones

Summary: For middle school and up, an introduction to some acoustics terms and how they relate to music.

Music is the art of sound, so let's start by talking about sound. Sound is invisible waves moving through the air around us. In the same way that ocean waves are made of ocean water, sound waves are made of the air (or water or whatever medium) they are moving through. When something vibrates, it disturbs the air molecules around it. The disturbance moves through the air in waves - each vibration making its own wave in the air - spreading out from the thing that made the sound, just as water waves spread out from a stone that's been dropped into a pond.

Figure 1: A ripple in water causing waves to propagate from the point where presumably drops of water fell.
Figure 1 (ripple.jpg)

Figure 2
Figure 2 (noisevstone.png)

A tone (the kind of sound you might call a musical note) is a specific kind of sound. The vibrations that cause it are very regular - all the same size and same distance apart. Musicians have terms that they use to describe tones. But this kind of (very regular) wave is useful for things other than music, so scientists and engineers also have terms that describe tonal sound waves. It can be very useful to know both the scientific and the musical terms and how they are related to each other.

For example, the closer together the waves of a tonal sound are, the higher the note sounds.

Wave and Sound Interaction

The following link is to an animation that will help one build intuition between frequency (how close waves are to one another) and the tonal pitch one actually hears. Click here.

  • For starters, in the lower box on the right-hand side under "Audio Control", click on the box "Audio enabled".
  • Within the "Audio Control" box, click on "Listener". This will allow you to hear the waves the person in the application is hearing.
  • Adjust the "Amplitude" bar. How does the wave look differently? How does it affect the sound?
  • Slide the "Frequency" bar. How does this affect how the waves appear as they travel to the listener. How does the pitch change to the listener?

Key Terms and Definitions of Them

Musicians talk about the pitch of the sound, or name specific notes, or talk about tuning. Scientists and engineers, on the other hand, talk about the frequency and the wavelength of the sound. They are all essentially talking about the same thing.

The Concepts and Where to Find Them

  • Wavelength - An introduction to wavelength, frequency, and pitch is presented in Frequency, Wavelength, and Pitch. You can find out more about the (Western) musical concept of pitch in Pitch: Sharp, Flat, and Natural Notes.
  • Wave Size - The other measurement you can make of regular, tonal waves is the size of each individual wave - its "height" or "intensity" rather than its wavelength. In sound waves, this is a measurement of the loudness of the sound. Amplitude is a short discussion of wave size. Musicians have many terms to discuss what they call Dynamics.
  • Types of Waves - There are two basic types of waves. Most diagrams show transverse waves which "wave" up-and-down as they move left-and-right. These are easier to show in a diagram, and most of the familiar kinds of waves - light waves, radio waves, water waves - are transverse. But sound is made of longitudinal waves, which "wave" in the same direction that they move. These are harder to draw, and a little harder to imagine, than transverse waves, but you will find some helpful suggestions at Transverse and Longitudinal Waves.
  • Standing Waves - Most natural sounds are not tones. In order to produce the extremely regular vibrations that make tonal sound waves, musical instruments, see Standing Waves and Musical Instruments and Standing Waves and Wind Instruments. To find out more about how the waves created in an instrument are related to each other musically, see Harmonic Series and Tuning Systems.
  • Sound and Ears - For a brief description of what happens when a sound reaches your ear, see Sound and Ears
  • The Math - Students struggling with the math needed for these ideas can look at Musical Intervals, Frequency and Ratio and Powers, Roots, and Equal Temperament.

Suggestions for presenting these concepts to a class

Figure 3
Figure 3 (waves.png)
Figure 4
Figure 4 (wavesworksheet.png)
Figure 5
Figure 5 (wavesworksheetanswers.png)

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