Skip to content Skip to navigation

OpenStax_CNX

You are here: Home » Content » Conservation of angular momentum

Navigation

Recently Viewed

This feature requires Javascript to be enabled.
 

Conservation of angular momentum

Module by: Sunil Kumar Singh. E-mail the author

Summary: Conservation of angular momentum of an isolated system is a general and fundamental law.

Note: You are viewing an old version of this document. The latest version is available here.

Conservation of angular momentum is the law of conservation of momentum in angular form. This statement essentially underlines that this law is actually a general conservation law and is just yet another form of law pertaining to the conservation of momentum. It has no limitation as far as types of motion (rotation or translation) are concerned. The isolated system of particles, as a matter of fact, may even not involve rotational motion at all in the extreme circumstance. However, this law is regarded to suit situations, which involve rotation. This is the reason that we tend to identify this conservation law with respect to rotational motion.

Conservation laws, including this one, actually addresses situations of motions, which otherwise can not be dealt by Newton's law of motion. Consider the case of a rotation, in which the rotating body is changing mass distribution and hence moment of inertia. Could we deal such situation easily with Newton's law (in the angular form)? Similarly, a spring board diver shows splendid rotational motions by manipulating mass distribution about the axis of rotation. Analysis of motions like these is best suited to the law of conservation of angular momentum.

Conservation of angular momentum

An aggregate of objects may have combination of motions. Some of which may be translating, others rotating and remaining may be undergoing a mix of motions. Conservation of angular momentum encompasses to analyze such complexity in motion. The generality of the conservation law is actually the reason why angular momentum has been defined about a point against an axis. This provides flexibility to combine all motion types. Had the angular quantities been defined only about an axis, then it would not have been possible to associate different types of motions with angular momentum. For example, it would have been difficult to apply law of conservation of angular momentum for randomly moving particles as shown in the figure :

Figure 1: Particles move randomly or may rotate about an axis.
System of particles
 System of particles  (ca1.gif)

Conservation of angular momentum, like conservation of linear momentum and energy, is fundamental to the nature and laws governing it. It is more fundamental than classical laws as it holds where Newton's law breaks down. It holds at sub-atomic level and also in the realm of motion, when it nears the speed of light.

We have studied that the time rate of change of angular momentum of a system of particles is equal to net external torque on the system. This is what is known as Newton's second law in angular form for a system of particles. It, then, follows that the angular momentum of the system will be conserved, if net external torque on the system is zero. Though, there is no external torque on the system, the particles inside the system may still be subjected to forces (torques) and, therefore, may undergo multiple change in velocity (angular velocity). Evidently, we can analyze resulting motions of the system with the help of the conservation of angular momentum.

There are many ways or forms in which this law can be stated. Mathematically,

t net = 0 t net = 0

t net = L t = 0 t net = L t = 0

L = 0 L = 0

From these result, we can state conservation of angular momentum in following equivalent ways :

Definition 1: Conservation of angular momentum
If net external torque on a system is zero, then the angular momentum of the system can not change.

Δ L = 0 Δ L = 0

Definition 2: Conservation of angular momentum
If net external torque on a system is zero, then the angular momentum of the system remains same.

L i = L f L i = L f

Conservation of angular momentum in component form

Application of the law of conservation of angular momentum is not as straight forward as it may appear. Theoretically, though, it is possible to conceive or define a system such that there is no external torque, but in real time situation it is not advisable to extend the system. If we also consider the fact that we have to consider angular momentums of all objects within the system about certain points and/or axes, then we realize that it is not actually possible to apply this law in most of the real time situation - unless when we have some complex algorithm with a powerful computer at our disposal.

However, there is the fact that motions along mutually perpendicular axes are independent of each other. This is an experimental fact, which has been described in detail in the module on projectile motion. This independence is a characteristic feature of motion and comes to our rescue in analyzing motion of an isolated system in the context of conservation of angular momentum.

The angular momentum is a vector quantity having direction as well. As such, we can express conservation of angular momentum along three mutually perpendicular axes of a rectangular coordinate system.

L xi = L xf , when t x = 0 L yi = L yf , when t y = 0 L zi = L zf , when t z = 0 L xi = L xf , when t x = 0 L yi = L yf , when t y = 0 L zi = L zf , when t z = 0

Looking at the above formulations, we realize that application of conservation law in three mutually perpendicular directions is a powerful paradigm. Even if external torque is not zero on a system, it is likely and possible that net component of external torques in a particular direction is zero. The component form of the conservation law allows us to apply conservation in that particular direction, irrespective of consideration in other mutually perpendicular directions. This is a great improvisation as far as application of the conservation of angular momentum is concerned. We, therefore, can state the component form of the law :

Definition 3: Conservation of angular momentum in component form
If the net component of external torques on a system along a certain direction is zero, then the component of angular momentum of the system in that direction can not change.

Conservation of angular momentum for isolated body system about a common axis

Isolated body system is a special case of general conservation law. It may occur to us that the rotational description can very well be analyzed in terms of Newton's second law in angular form. Why do we need to consider such eventuality? As pointed out early in this module, there are situations of rigid bodies, which are capable to change their mass distribution. It would be very difficult to analyze motion in terms of angular form of second law of motion of a rigid body system, which changes mass distribution internally. Conservation law, on the other hand, can elegantly provide the solution.

Humans are one such body. We can change our body configuration by manipulating arms and legs. This is what dancers, skaters and spring board divers do. They change their body configuration. This changes their moment of inertia about the axis of rotation. However as there is no external torque involved, there is corresponding change in their angular velocity to conserve angular momentum of the body system.

There is yet another situation, when conservation of angular momentum for body system can be helpful in analyzing motion. We can consider multiple parts of the body system which may selectively undergo rotation about a common axis of rotation. For example, motions of two discs along a common spindle can be analyzed by considering conservation of angular momentum of the isolated body system.

Figure 2: The disks rotate about a common axis.
System of two disks
 System of two disks  (ca2.gif)

The statement of conservation of angular momentum for isolated body system can take advantage of the relation valid for the rigid body. Here,

L i = L f I i ω i = I f ω f L i = L f I i ω i = I f ω f

Examples

Here, some examples are given to illustrate conservation of angular momentum, as applicable to the system of rigid bodies.

1: The revolution of planets around Sun

The planets like Earth move around Sun along an elliptical orbit. The gravitational pull provides the necessary centripetal force for the curved elliptical path of motion. This gravitational force, however, passes through center of mass of the Earth and the Sun. As such, it does not constitute a torque. Thus, no external torque is applied to the Earth - Sun system. We can, therefore, apply conservation of angular momentum to the system.

Figure 3: The Earth moves around Sun in an elliptical path.
Earth revolving around Sun
 Earth revolving around Sun  (ca3.gif)

When the Earth comes closer to the Sun, the moment of inertia of the Earth about an axis through the center of mass of the Sun decreases. In order to conserve its angular momentum, it begins to orbit the Sun faster. Similarly, the Earth rotates slower when it is away from the Sun. All through Earth's revolution, following condition is met :

I i ω i = I f ω f I i ω i = I f ω f

We should note here that we are considering rotation of the Earth about the Sun - not the rotation of Earth about its own axis of rotation. If we recall Kepler's law, we can see the convergence of results. This law states that the line joining Sun and Earth sweeps equal area in equal time and, thereby predicts greater tangential velocity (in turn, greater angular velocity), when closer to the Sun.

2: A person sitting on a turn table

A person sitting on a turn table can manipulate angular speed by changing moment of inertia about the axis of rotation without any external aid. In order to accentuate the effect, we consider that person is holding some weights in his outstretched hands. Let us consider that the system of the turntable and the person holding weights in the outstretched hands, is rotating about vertical axis at certain angular velocity in the beginning. The moment of inertia of the body and weights about the axis of rotation is :

Figure 4
A person sitting on a turn table
(a) The person with extended arms (b) The person with folded arms
Figure 4(a) (ca4.gif)Figure 4(b) (ca5.gif)

I = m i r i 2 I = m i r i 2

When the person folds his hands slowly, the moment of inertia about the axis decreases as the distribution of mass is closer to the axis of rotation. In order to conserve angular momentum, the turn table and person starts rotating at greater angular velocity.

ω f > ω i ω f > ω i

3: Ice skater

An ice skater rotates with outstretched hands on one leg. When he/she folds the hands and legs closer to the axis of rotation, the moment of inertia of the body decreases. As a consequence, ice skater begins to spin at much greater angular velocity.

4: Spring board jumper

The spring board jumper follows a parabolic path of a projectile. In this case, the motion is about an accelerated axis of rotation, which moves along the parabolic path. In the beginning, the jumper keeps hands and legs stretched. During the flight, he/she curls the body to decrease moment of inertia. This results in increased angular velocity i.e. more turns before the jumper hits the water.

Figure 5: The jumper follows a parabolic path under gravity.
Spring board jumping
 Spring board jumping  (ca6.gif)

When the spring board jumper nears the water surface, he/she stretches hands and legs so that he/she she has straight line posture ensuring minimum splash while hitting water surface.

Measurement of angular momentum

We measure angular momentums in the context of some events like change in the distribution of mass, angular velocity etc. that essentially arises from internal forces (torques). The measurements of angular momentums are required applying law of conservation of angular momentum before and after the event.

The fundamental aspect of measurement of angular momentum is that its measurement should be about the same reference before and after the event. This is the basic requirement for applying law of conservation of angular momentum.

We know that measurements of angular momentum about different points are different. Hence, we should stick to same set of points for measuring angular momentum so that the single value property of the physical quantity could be maintained.

If the axis of rotation (for the case of rotation) changes direction, then we should consider conservation in terms of the component of angular momentum about the same axis of rotation as before the event occurs. Since angular momentum is a vector quantity, we can always find its component in a given direction and this should not be a problem.

Figure 6: We measure the component of angular momentum about the same .
Rotation about an axis changing orientation
 Rotation about an axis changing orientation  (ca7.gif)

The measurement of angular momentum of a system, however, could involve complexity for the following two reasons :

  1. The system may have constituents involving both rotation and translation.
  2. There may be more than one axes of rotations.

Figure 7: The combined system rotates about “z” axis, whereas smaller disk rotates about parallel “z’” axis.
System with more than one axes of rotation
 System with more than one axes of rotation  (cs8.gif)

As far as rotation is concerned, we deal it about an axis of rotation. There is no ambiguity involved here. What about translation? The measurement of angular momentum for non-rotational motion is about a point in the plane of motion of the particle or the particle like body. Usually, we would prefer (not required) that the point is on the axis of rotation.

If a system consists of bodies rotating about different axes, then we should stick to the same axes for subsequent (after case) time as well for calculating angular momentum. We then combine the angular momentums, using vector addition to find the net or resultant angular momentum.

All these aspects of measurement of angular momentum are illustrated with detailed explanation in the next module.

Summary

1. Law of conservation of angular momentum

Definition : If there is no external torque on a system, then the angular momentum of the system can not change.

In general,

L i = L f L i = L f

For rotation,

I i ω i = I f ω f I i ω i = I f ω f

The rotational form of conservation law is suited for rotation of rigid body that changes its mass distribution due to internal forces or where constituent parts of the system change their angular velocities.

2. Law of conservation of angular momentum in component form

Definition : If the net component of external torques on a system along a certain direction is zero, then the component of angular momentum of the system in that direction can not change.

If “x”,”y” and “z” represent three mutually perpendicular axes, then :

L xi = L xf , when t x = 0 L yi = L yf , when t y = 0 L zi = L zf , when t z = 0 L xi = L xf , when t x = 0 L yi = L yf , when t y = 0 L zi = L zf , when t z = 0

By corollary, component form of conservation law means that consideration of angular momentum in a given direction is not affected by torques in directions perpendicular to that direction.

Content actions

Download module as:

Add module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks