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A Multidimensional Approach To Educating All Children: Empowering Stakeholders To Make Appropriate Decisions

Module by: Don Schulte, W. Fred Ivy, Barbara Hong. E-mail the authors

Summary: This conceptual paper diagnoses the limitations and historic misuses of Deno’s Cascade Model for students with special needs and proposes a new schema for the individualized inclusion of all students. The extension of a once simplistic model is viewed through the triangulated perspectives of (1) students’ understanding and attitude; (2) parental care and advice; (3) teachers’ conscientious behaviors; and (4) administrative leadership. We propose a comprehensive placement option for students receiving special education services, and also extend that continuum of services to students who have no mandated protection in general education. Hence, the original, single-dimensional model is transformed into a metaphorical PRISM to represent a new paradigm of best practices for empowering all stakeholders. A systematic tool for addressing the diversity of the entire student population is structured to provide multiple options that are conducive to learning, while restructuring the administrative process and campus infrastructure.

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This module has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of the Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a scholarly contribution to the knowledge base in educational administration.

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All figures are credited to W. Fred Ivy, as discussed with Barbara Hong and Don Schulte.

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