Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to collection information

OpenStax_CNX

You are here: Home » Content » Sound Reasoning » Building on Identity

Navigation

Table of Contents

Lenses

What is a lens?

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

This content is ...

Affiliated with (What does "Affiliated with" mean?)

This content is either by members of the organizations listed or about topics related to the organizations listed. Click each link to see a list of all content affiliated with the organization.
  • Featured Content display tagshide tags

    This collection is included inLens: Connexions Featured Content
    By: Connexions

    Comments:

    "Sound Reasoning has been updated (August 2010) with a new set of lessons on hearing harmonies. Here is how the author describes the new materials: "Hearing Harmony" is an introductory course on […]"

    Click the "Featured Content" link to see all content affiliated with them.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

Also in these lenses

  • TEC Music Theory Resources display tagshide tags

    This collection is included inLens: TEC Music Theory resources
    By: Cynthia Faisst

    Click the "TEC Music Theory Resources" link to see all content selected in this lens.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

  • Bridgeway display tagshide tags

    This collection is included inLens: Bridgeway Academy Lens
    By: Bridgeway Academy

    Comments:

    "Sound Reasoning by Anthony Brandt"

    Click the "Bridgeway" link to see all content selected in this lens.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

Recently Viewed

This feature requires Javascript to be enabled.

Tags

(What is a tag?)

These tags come from the endorsement, affiliation, and other lenses that include this content.
 

Building on Identity

Module by: Anthony Brandt. E-mail the author

Note:

You must have the latest version of Macromedia's free Flash plugin to play the musical examples.

Now that we have established how musical identity is created, it is time to study the language of transformation.

Literature is filled with stories of transformation: In the legend of King Arthur, a commoner becomes the ruler of England; in George Bernard Shaw’s “Pygmalion,” a humble flower girl becomes a “fair lady”; in Charles Dickens’ “A Christmas Carol,” a miserable miser is transformed into a generous benefactor; in the legend of Siddharta, an Indian Prince gives us his belongings to achieve enlightenment.

Scrooge meets his ghosts; Eliza Doolittle studies diction. How is a musical idea transformed? In music, transformation is achieved through dynamic repetition. Whereas literal repetition repeats the music with all its aspects intact, in dynamic repetition, some new element or quality is added: That is, one or more aspects of the musical material are kept constant while others change. We will first examine how dynamic repetition can refashion an entire theme. We will then study how dynamic repetition itself is accelerated and intensified through fragmentation.

Preserving the Melody

Transposition is one of the most basic ways of creating dynamic repetition. In its simplest form, an entire musical passage is shifted up or down, as if it were riding in an elevator.

Preserving the melody but changing its speed modifies the repetition.

Example 3

To evoke a Witches’ Sabbath in the final movement of his Symphonie Fantastique, Hector Berlioz quotes the “Dies Irae,” the Latin hymn for the dead from the Requiem Mass. Each phrase of the “Dies Irae” is played at three different speeds: First, slow by the low brass; faster and in harmony by the middle range brass; and faster still by the woodwinds.

Example 4

The melody of Thelonius Monk’s Brilliant Corners is first played at a leisurely pace, then quickens.

Varying the register, instrumentation or accompaniment—either individually or collectively—offers ways to presents a theme in a new light.

Example 5

In this excerpt from Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6, the repetition of the lyrical theme is refreshed by a change of register, instrumentation and accompaniment. The theme passes from the cellos to the woodwinds.

Example 6

The repetition in this excerpt from Leonard Bernstein’s Candide Overture is revitalized in a similar way: This time, the theme passes upwards from the cellos to the violins, as the accompaniment becomes more lush.

Example 7

Olivier Messaien’s Turangalila Symphonie offers an example where only the accompaniment changes. At first, the spiky, rhythmically exacting theme is presented over a spare, murmuring background, accentuated by the percussion. As the theme is prolonged, its support becomes more ornate, with elaborate piano figuration.

Embellishing a melody enlivens its repetition.

Example 8

The strings initially present the theme of the slow movement of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No. 5, “Emperor.”

Example 9

Later in the movement, the piano presents an embellished version of the theme.

Example 10

Thelonius Monk’s Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are is based on the following theme:

Example 11

In this excerpt, Monk’s fanciful improvisation leaves just enough details intact to make the original melody still recognizable.

Preserving the contour—the shape of a melody, but not its exact details—is another way of creating dynamic repetition.

Example 12

Franz Schubert’s String Quartet in G opens with the following declamation:

Example 13

Later in the work, the opening statement is restored, but with its details radically changed:

The originally jagged rhythms are “smoothed out;” the texture includes plucked strings; the harmony is different. The theme is recognizable primarily from its contour.

Example 14

The opening theme of the first movement of Bela Bartok’s Music for Strings, Percussion and Celeste is presented by the violas, alone.

Example 15

In the Finale movement, Bartok restores this theme. However, the initially cramped tune is “opened up:” While its contour is maintained, the arcs of its motion are now wider. The addition of lush harmony further invigorates the theme’s recurrence.

Changing clothing can make our physical appearance look different. Similarly, varying the harmony can “dress up” a theme in different ways.

Example 16

Here are three different harmonizations of the Promenade theme from Modest Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition.

Example 17

In these excerpts, the nearly “unclothed” theme of Claude Debussy’s La fille aux cheveux de lin, is followed by two different harmonizations.

In tonal music, playing a melody in the opposite mode creates a very significant change.

Example 18

This melody from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Symphony no. 38, “Prague,” is first played in Major, then switches to minor before reclaiming Major.

Example 19

Conversely, the primary theme from the first movement of Franz Schubert’s String Quartet in a-minor is first played in minor, then switches to Major, before returning abruptly back to minor.

Thus, we have seen how a melody may be preserved, but its repetition varied through changes in speed, instrumentation, accompaniment and harmony.

The most rigorous and self-sufficient way of building on melodic identity is a canon. Like a round, a canon is based on imitation. In a round, the voices are cyclical: Like a merry-go-round, the voices keep replaying the same tune and underlying harmonic progression over and over again. A canon, on the other hand, is through-composed: Rather than turning around in circles, the melody and underlying progression keep moving forward. Thus, our distinction: rounds maintain the identity of a theme, whereas canons elaborate on it.

Example 20

The third movement of Franz Joseph Haydn’s String Quartet in d-minor, Opus 76 No. 2 includes a two-voice canon: The violins play the lead line in unison, which the viola and cello then imitate in full. The canon is divided into two halves, each of which is repeated.

Twentieth century composers emphasized the plasticity of canons. In most traditional canons, each voice moves in a distinct register, like drivers staying in their lanes. In the following canon by Anton Webern, the voices constantly flip over each other. Like a game of “Three Card Monte,” it is easy to lose track of who is where. The repeated notes that recur throughout this brief movement are actually caused by the two canonic lines “bumping” up against each other.

Example 21

American composer Conlon Nancarrow created an innovative series of canons for player piano. Using a mechanical means of performance enabled him to conceive of rhythm relationships too complex for a human performer. In Study No. 24, the three voices are moving in a speed ratio of 14/15/16. The effect is similar to heterophony; but here the voices are split into different registers.

Example 22

These twentieth century examples dramatize how canons build on identity. Though Webern and Nancarrow’s canons are each based on a single melodic line, the complexity of the canons disguise this internal consistency. The resulting textures take on a life of their own.

Preserving the Harmony

In many different genres and styles of music, dynamic repetition of the harmonic progression is a primary way of transforming the material.

In a classical “theme and variations,” the variations are based on the harmonic progression of the theme. The following excerpts are from a set of variations for string quartet by Franz Schubert based on his song “Death and the Maiden.” The variations offer a sampling of the diversity that can be created from a single progression.

As in a theme and variations, the underlying harmonic progression is maintained in a traditional jazz improvisation: As the progression is repeated, each member of the ensemble takes turn creating a spontaneous melody on top of it.

Example 24

Here is the progression underlying Miles Davis’ So What, followed by the piano solo.

In a classical theme and variations and traditional jazz, the piece will have one underlying progression that cycles repeatedly. In other works, there may be a greater assortment of harmonies and progressions.

Example 25

In the following excerpt from Sheherezade: The Sea and Sinbad’s Ship, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov creates a rhapsodic, extended melody.

Example 26

The “bead” of this elaborate melodic strand is a short motive that is transposed over and over. Later in the work, an intense passage builds on the identity of the harmony: The motive is at first absent, but the progression that supports it is played repeatedly. At the end of the excerpt, the motive returns forcefully in the low brass—fitting in perfectly on top of the already present harmonic progression.

Example 27

The following excerpt is from the second movement of Stravinsky’s Symphony of Psalms. Beneath the women’s voices, the lower strings are playing the movement’s main theme.

Example 28

In the third movement, Stravinsky alludes to this passage by replaying its harmonic progression in slow motion. The men’s vocal line is a variation of the second movement theme.

Thus, harmonic progression may be preserved, while the surface details are varied.

Preserving the Rhythm

Finally, a rhythmic pattern may be maintained, while the melodies and harmonies used to express it are changed.

Example 29

In Alban Berg’s opera Wozzeck, the title character staggers into a tavern after murdering his unfaithful wife. The music in the scene is based on a single rhythm, called by Berg a “mono-rhythm,” first introduced by the percussion.

Example 30

The saloon pianist picks up the mono-rhythm and incorporates it into a raucous polka:

Example 31

Wozzeck joins in, his vocal line also echoing the mono-rhythm:

Example 32

When a neighbor Margret spots blood on Wozzeck’s hand, her words are carefully timed to the mono-rhythm.

Example 33

In the gradually escalating confrontation, the two singers are accompanied by the mono-rhythm. Berg creates this entire scene from the mono-rhythm without ever playing it the same way twice.

Example 34

Much of Bernard Herrmann’s music for Alfred Hitchcock’s thriller North by Northwest is focused on the following compact, agitated theme:

Example 35

In the climactic scene, as Cary Grant and Eva Marie-Saint are escaping down the slopes of Mount Rushmore, Hermann creates a panoramic display of the theme. In the excerpt that follows, the winds, brass and percussion mimic the rhythm of the theme—but not the notes.

Thus, a theme may also be reduced to its rhythmic pattern, freeing it to assume many melodic and harmonic forms.

Conclusion

We have studied how dynamic repetition can revitalize a musical idea. We are now in a better position to assess what the variations by Paganini, Brahms, Lutoslawski and Rochberg had in common with Paganini’s original theme.

Example 36

First of all, Paganini’s theme is built out of a single pattern.

Example 37

Likewise, all of the variations feature an insistent pattern of their own.

Example 38

Notice that this is not true of the Schumann example: Its opening pattern is not maintained so literally.

Example 39

Second, Paganini’s theme is divided into two halves: In the first, the harmonic progression oscillates back and forth between two chords. In the second half, the harmonic progression “opens up” into a broader progression:

Example 40

The variations all follow this harmonic plan. They also mimic the pacing of Paganini’s harmonies.

Example 41

The Schumann follows neither the same harmonic plan nor the same pacing. It also lasts longer!

Each of the variations has other features in common with Paganini’s theme: Just enough of the theme’s identity is maintained to preserve its integrity. Meanwhile, the variations leave aspects of its identity behind. For instance, not all follow the theme’s contour: Brahms’ motive heads downwards, Rochberg’s remains rooted in the same place.

Building on identity requires that at least one aspect of the musical idea remain constant: We have observed how melody, harmony and rhythm may all be preserved, while the other features are altered.

In some musical styles and traditions, the means of transformation defines the genre : In jazz, the harmonic progression—such a “twelve-bar blues”—cycles as the ensemble members take turns improvising. In an Indian raga, the soloist improvises over the underlying rhythmic cycle, called a tala.

Thus far, we have considered the make-over of an entire musical idea. But composers can also take a hammer to their material and smash it in order to create new forms.

Collection Navigation

Content actions

Download:

Collection as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Module as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Add:

Collection to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks

Module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks
Musical Examples
  1. Antonia Vivaldi, Autumn from The Four Seasons, Example 1
  2. Antonia Vivaldi, Autumn from The Four Seasons, Example 2
  3. Robert Scott/Ric Marlow, A Taste of Honey, Example 1
  4. Robert Scott/Ric Marlow, A Taste of Honey, Example 2
  5. Hector Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, V
  6. Thelonius Monk, Brilliant Corners
  7. Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 6, II
  8. Leonard Bernstein, Candide Overture
  9. Olivier Messaien, Turangalila-Symphonie
  10. Ludwig Van Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 3, ‘Emperor’
  11. Ludwig Van Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 3, ‘Emperor’
  12. Thelonius Monk, Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are
  13. Thelonius Monk, Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are
  14. Franz Schubert, String Quartet in G, I
  15. Franz Schubert, String Quartet in G, I
  16. Béla Bartok, Music for Strings, Percussion and the Celeste, I
  17. Béla Bartok, Music for Strings, Percussion and the Celeste, IV
  18. Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 1
  19. Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 2
  20. Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 3
  21. Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 1
  22. Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 2
  23. Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 3
  24. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony No. 38, ‘Prague,’ I
  25. Franz Schubert, String Quartet in a-minor
  26. Franz Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in d-minor, Opus 76, No. 2, III
  27. Anton Webern, Variations for Piano, II
  28. Conlon Nancarrow, Study No. 24
  29. Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 1
  30. Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 2
  31. Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 3
  32. Miles Davis, So What, Example 1
  33. Miles Davis, So What, Example 2
  34. Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade
  35. Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade
  36. Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, II
  37. Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, III
  38. Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
  39. Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
  40. Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
  41. Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
  42. Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
  43. Bernard Herrmann, ’Overture’ from North by Northwest
  44. Bernard Herrmann, ’On the Rocks’ from North by Northwest
  45. Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24
  46. Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24, Example 1
  47. Johannes Brahms, Paganini Variations, Example 2
  48. Witold Lutoslawski, Paganini Variations, Example 3
  49. George Rochberg, Caprice Variations, Example 4
  50. Robert Schumann, Etudes de Concert d’apres Paginini
  51. Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24
  52. Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24, Example 1
  53. Johannes Brahms, Paganini Variations, Example 2
  54. Witold Lutoslawski, Paganini Variations, Example 3
  55. George Rochberg, Caprice Variations, Example 4
  56. Robert Schumann, Etudes de Concert d’apres Paginini
Antonia Vivaldi, Autumn from The Four Seasons, Example 1
Antonia Vivaldi, Autumn from The Four Seasons, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Deutsche Harmonia Mundi 05472-77384-2 — Freiburg Baroque Orchestra, Gottfried von der Goltz
Antonia Vivaldi, Autumn from The Four Seasons, Example 2
Antonia Vivaldi, Autumn from The Four Seasons, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Deutsche Harmonia Mundi 05472-77384-2 — Freiburg Baroque Orchestra, Gottfried von der Goltz
Robert Scott/Ric Marlow, A Taste of Honey, Example 1
Robert Scott/Ric Marlow, A Taste of Honey, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Shout DK 32868 — Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass
Robert Scott/Ric Marlow, A Taste of Honey, Example 2
Robert Scott/Ric Marlow, A Taste of Honey, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Shout DK 32868 — Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass
Hector Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, V
Hector Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, V
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Veritas 61379 — London Classical Players, Roger Norrington
Thelonius Monk, Brilliant Corners
Thelonius Monk, Brilliant Corners
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Riverside OJCCD-026-2 — Thelonius Monk, Sonny Rollins, Ernie Henry, Clark Terry
Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 6, II
Peter Illyich Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 6, II
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Vox Box CD5X 3603 — Utah Symphony, Maurice Abravanel
Leonard Bernstein, Candide Overture
Leonard Bernstein, Candide Overture
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Naxos 8.559099 — Florida Philharmonic Orchestra, James Judd
Olivier Messaien, Turangalila-Symphonie
Olivier Messaien, Turangalila-Symphonie
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Teldec 8573-82043-2 — Berlin Philharmonic, Kent Nagano
Ludwig Van Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 3, ‘Emperor’
Ludwig Van Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 3, ‘Emperor’
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

EMI 7610052 — Edwin Fischer, piano; Philharmonia Orchestra; Wilhelm Furtwangler
Ludwig Van Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 3, ‘Emperor’
Ludwig Van Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 3, ‘Emperor’
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

EMI 7610052 — Edwin Fischer, piano; Philharmonia Orchestra; Wilhelm Furtwangler
Thelonius Monk, Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are
Thelonius Monk, Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Riverside OJCCD-026-2 — Thelonius Monk, Sonny Rollins, Ernie Henry, Clark Terry
Thelonius Monk, Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are
Thelonius Monk, Ba-Lue Bolivar Ba-Lues-Are
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Riverside OJCCD-026-2 — Thelonius Monk, Sonny Rollins, Ernie Henry, Clark Terry
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in G, I
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in G, I
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Gunmar 2018 — The Franz Schubert Quartet
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in G, I
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in G, I
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Gunmar 2018 — The Franz Schubert Quartet
Béla Bartok, Music for Strings, Percussion and the Celeste, I
Béla Bartok, Music for Strings, Percussion and the Celeste, I
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Arte Nova Classics 277600 — SWR Symphony Orchestra, Zoltán Peskó
Béla Bartok, Music for Strings, Percussion and the Celeste, IV
Béla Bartok, Music for Strings, Percussion and the Celeste, IV
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Arte Nova Classics 277600 — SWR Symphony Orchestra, Zoltán Peskó
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 1
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Deutsche Grammophon 437 667-2 — Ivo Pogorelich, piano
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 2
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Deutsche Grammophon 437 667-2 — Ivo Pogorelich, piano
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 3
Modest Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Example 3
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Deutsche Grammophon 437 667-2 — Ivo Pogorelich, piano
Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 1
Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Hyperion CDA67530 — Steven Osborne, piano
Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 2
Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Hyperion CDA67530 — Steven Osborne, piano
Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 3
Claude Debussy, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Example 3
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Hyperion CDA67530 — Steven Osborne, piano
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony No. 38, ‘Prague,’ I
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony No. 38, ‘Prague,’ I
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

London 436 421-2 — The Cleveland Orchestra, Christoph von Dohnányi
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in a-minor
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in a-minor
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS MPK 45696 — The Budapest String Quartet
Franz Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in d-minor, Opus 76, No. 2, III
Franz Joseph Haydn, String Quartet in d-minor, Opus 76, No. 2, III
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

ASV DCA 1076 — The Lindsays
Anton Webern, Variations for Piano, II
Anton Webern, Variations for Piano, II
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Sony Classical SM3K 45845 — Charles Rosen, piano
Conlon Nancarrow, Study No. 24
Conlon Nancarrow, Study No. 24
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Wergo 6909 2
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 1
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS MPK 45696 — The Budapest String Quartet
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 2
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS MPK 45696 — The Budapest String Quartet
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 3
Franz Schubert, String Quartet in d-minor, II, Example 3
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS MPK 45696 — The Budapest String Quartet
Miles Davis, So What, Example 1
Miles Davis, So What, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Columbia 82876 84784 2
Miles Davis, So What, Example 2
Miles Davis, So What, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Columbia 82876 84784 2
Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade
Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Melodiya 74321 40065 2 — USSR Symphony Orchestra, Evgeny Svetlanov
Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade
Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Melodiya 74321 40065 2 — USSR Symphony Orchestra, Evgeny Svetlanov
Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, II
Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, II
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Hänssler Classic, CD 93 183 — SWR Sinfonieorchestrer Baden-Baden und Frieburg, Michael Gielen
Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, III
Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, III
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Hänssler Classic, CD 93 183 — SWR Sinfonieorchestrer Baden-Baden und Frieburg, Michael Gielen
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS M2K 79251 — Paris National Opera Orchestra, Pierre Boulez
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS M2K 79251 — Paris National Opera Orchestra, Pierre Boulez
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS M2K 79251 — Paris National Opera Orchestra, Pierre Boulez
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS M2K 79251 — Paris National Opera Orchestra, Pierre Boulez
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
Alban Berg, ’Inn Scene’ from Wozzeck
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CBS M2K 79251 — Paris National Opera Orchestra, Pierre Boulez
Bernard Herrmann, ’Overture’ from North by Northwest
Bernard Herrmann, ’Overture’ from North by Northwest
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Tuner Classic Movies 72101
Bernard Herrmann, ’On the Rocks’ from North by Northwest
Bernard Herrmann, ’On the Rocks’ from North by Northwest
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Tuner Classic Movies 72101
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Tactus 781602 — Marco Rogliano, violin
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24, Example 1
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Tactus 781602 — Marco Rogliano, violin
Johannes Brahms, Paganini Variations, Example 2
Johannes Brahms, Paganini Variations, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CDS 441/1-2 — Marco Pasini, piano
Witold Lutoslawski, Paganini Variations, Example 3
Witold Lutoslawski, Paganini Variations, Example 3
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Naxos 8.553423 — Bernd Glemser, piano; Polish National Radio Orchestra, Antoni Wit
George Rochberg, Caprice Variations, Example 4
George Rochberg, Caprice Variations, Example 4
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Metier MSV CD92065 — Peter Sheppard Skaerved
Robert Schumann, Etudes de Concert d’apres Paginini
Robert Schumann, Etudes de Concert d’apres Paginini
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CDS 441/1-2 — Marco Pasini, piano
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Tactus 781602 — Marco Rogliano, violin
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24, Example 1
Nicolo Paganini, Caprice No. 24, Example 1
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Tactus 781602 — Marco Rogliano, violin
Johannes Brahms, Paganini Variations, Example 2
Johannes Brahms, Paganini Variations, Example 2
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CDS 441/1-2 — Marco Pasini, piano
Witold Lutoslawski, Paganini Variations, Example 3
Witold Lutoslawski, Paganini Variations, Example 3
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Naxos 8.553423 — Bernd Glemser, piano; Polish National Radio Orchestra, Antoni Wit
George Rochberg, Caprice Variations, Example 4
George Rochberg, Caprice Variations, Example 4
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

Metier MSV CD92065 — Peter Sheppard Skaerved
Robert Schumann, Etudes de Concert d’apres Paginini
Robert Schumann, Etudes de Concert d’apres Paginini
x

You need to install Macromedia Flash to display this.

CDS 441/1-2 — Marco Pasini, piano