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# About: Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation

Module by: Susan Dean, Barbara Illowsky, Ph.D.. E-mail the authors

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 Name: Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation ID: m16021 Language: English (en) Summary: This module discusses statistical variability within data and samples. Students will be given the opportunity to see this variability in action through participation in an optional classroom exercise. This module also has a section that discusses Critical Evaluation. Subject: Mathematics and Statistics Keywords: data, measurement, sample, sampling, size, statistics, variability, variation License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0 Authors: Copyright Holders: Maintainers: Latest version: 1.15 (history) First publication date: Mar 31, 2008 3:00 pm +0000 Last revision to module: May 17, 2012 9:01 pm +0000

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## Version History

 Version: 1.15 May 17, 2012 9:01 pm +0000 by Changes: `Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation: Updated language.` Version: 1.14 Jan 27, 2009 12:09 pm +0000 by Changes: `Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation: Added information about Critical Evaluation to the summary.` Version: 1.13 Jan 27, 2009 12:06 pm +0000 by Changes: `Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation: Added a new section called "Critical Evaluation." Changed the title of the module to "Variation and Critical Evaluation."` Version: 1.12 Jan 7, 2009 6:57 pm +0000 by Changes: `Under the Variation section, the discussion about the size of a sample was updated to reflect the fact that large and small samples can be appropriate.` Version: 1.11 Oct 27, 2008 8:34 pm +0000 by Changes: `roles updated` Version: 1.10 Jul 14, 2008 11:24 am +0000 by Changes: `image review` Version: 1.9 Jul 14, 2008 11:23 am +0000 by Changes: `image review` Version: 1.8 Jul 9, 2008 11:26 am +0000 by Changes: `Corrected problem where extra columns were added to tables` Version: 1.7 Jul 8, 2008 8:50 pm +0000 by Changes: `post review edits` Version: 1.6 Jul 3, 2008 11:55 am +0000 by Changes: `post review updates` Version: 1.5 Jun 26, 2008 4:45 pm +0000 by Changes: `Roles changed` Version: 1.4 May 22, 2008 9:44 am +0000 by Changes: `Fixed Glossary` Version: 1.3 Apr 29, 2008 3:03 pm +0000 by Changes: `Updated metadata` Version: 1.2 Apr 22, 2008 11:03 am +0000 by Changes: `Cnxorg added as maintainer` Version: 1.1 Apr 18, 2008 4:37 pm +0000 by Changes: `Original Publishing`

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## How to Cite and Attribute This Content

The following citation styles comply with the attribution requirements for the license (CC-BY 3.0) of this work:

### American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

Dean, S.; Illowsky, B. Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/, May 17, 2012.

### American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

Dean S, Illowsky B. Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation [Connexions Web site]. May 17, 2012. Available at: http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/.

### American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. (2012, May 17). Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/

### Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

Dean, Susan, and Barbara Illowsky. "Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation." Connexions. May 17, 2012. http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

Susan Dean and Barbara Illowsky, "Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation," Connexions, May 17, 2012, http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Reference, in Author-Date style):

Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. 2012. Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation. Connexions, May 17, 2012. http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/.

### Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

Dean, Susan, and Barbara Illowsky. Sampling and Data: Variation and Critical Evaluation. Connexions. 17 May 2012 <http://cnx.org/content/m16021/1.15/>.