HoHo and HaHa are contradictory.
Table 1
If HoHo has: |
equal (=)(=) |
greater than or equal to
(≥)(≥) |
less than or equal to (≤)(≤) |
then HaHa has: |
not equal (≠)(≠)
or
greater than
(>)(>) or
less than (<)(<) |
less than (<)(<) |
greater than (>)(>) |
If
α
≤
α≤ p-value, then do not reject
H
o
H
o.
If
α
>
α> p-value, then reject
H
o
H
o
.
αα is preconceived. Its value is set before
the hypothesis test starts.
The p-value is calculated from the data.
αα = probability of a Type I error = P(Type I error)
= probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.
ββ = probability of a Type II error = P(Type II error) = probability of not rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.
If there is no given preconceived αα, then use α=0.05α=0.05.
- Single population mean, known population variance (or standard deviation): Normal
test.
- Single population mean, unknown population variance (or standard deviation):
Student-t test.
- Single population proportion: Normal test.