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Module by: Susan Dean, Barbara Illowsky, Ph.D.. E-mail the authors

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 Name: Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data ID: m17103 Language: English (en) Summary: Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of Data explains standard deviation as a measure of variation in data and is part of the collection col10555 written by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean. Roberta Bloom made contributions that helped to clarify the standard deviation and the variance. Subject: Mathematics and Statistics Keywords: elementary, statistics License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0 Authors: Copyright Holders: Maintainers: Latest version: 1.15 (history) First publication date: Jun 26, 2008 11:36 am -0500 Last revision to module: Mar 28, 2013 1:56 am -0500

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## Version History

 Version: 1.15 Mar 28, 2013 1:56 am -0500 by Changes: `Module: Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: Added calculator instructions.` Version: 1.14 May 17, 2012 7:26 pm -0500 by Changes: `Measuring the Spread of the Data: Added a note about "mean" and "average." Added subscripts of x to sample mean and population mean. Did other minor edits.` Version: 1.13 Mar 14, 2012 10:01 am -0500 by Changes: `Module: Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: Updated "data is" to "data are."` Version: 1.12 Aug 19, 2011 9:33 am -0500 by Changes: `Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: Updated glossary item "Standard Deviation."` Version: 1.11 Jul 8, 2011 4:12 pm -0500 by Changes: `Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: Made various minor edits throughout the section. Added Chebyshev's Rule and the Empirical Rule at the end.` Version: 1.10 Jun 22, 2011 11:00 am -0500 by Changes: `Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: Added more information about the standard deviation and the variance and the equation #ofSTDEV=(value-mean)/stdev.` Version: 1.9 Mar 8, 2010 8:25 pm -0600 by Changes: ` Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: Added Sampling Variability of a Statistic.` Version: 1.8 Feb 19, 2009 9:36 am -0600 by Changes: `Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data: updated the glossary items.` Version: 1.7 Jan 8, 2009 9:35 pm -0600 by Changes: `Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of Data: Added the heading "Calculation of the Sample Standard Deviation" for clarity.` Version: 1.6 Oct 27, 2008 1:23 pm -0500 by Changes: `roles updated` Version: 1.5 Aug 20, 2008 11:15 am -0500 by Changes: `Corrected errors (see m17360 for details)` Version: 1.4 Jul 14, 2008 11:07 am -0500 by Changes: `Removed image width parameters` Version: 1.3 Jul 8, 2008 8:28 pm -0500 by Changes: `post review edits` Version: 1.2 Jul 3, 2008 11:27 am -0500 by Changes: `post review updates` Version: 1.1 Jun 26, 2008 6:26 pm -0500 by Changes: `Initial publication`

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### American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

Dean, S.; Illowsky, B. Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/, Mar 28, 2013.

### American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

Dean S, Illowsky B. Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data [Connexions Web site]. March 28, 2013. Available at: http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/.

### American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. (2013, March 28). Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/

### Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

Dean, Susan, and Barbara Illowsky. "Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data." Connexions. March 28, 2013. http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

Susan Dean and Barbara Illowsky, "Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data," Connexions, March 28, 2013, http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Reference, in Author-Date style):

Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. 2013. Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data. Connexions, March 28, 2013. http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/.

### Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

Dean, Susan, and Barbara Illowsky. Descriptive Statistics: Measuring the Spread of the Data. Connexions. 28 Mar. 2013 <http://cnx.org/content/m17103/1.15/>.