# Connexions

##### Sections
You are here: Home » Content » The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence

# About: The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence

Module by: Susan Dean, Barbara Illowsky, Ph.D.. E-mail the authors

View the content: The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence

 Name: The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence ID: m17191 Language: English (en) Summary: This module describes how the chi-square distribution can be used to test for independence. Subject: Mathematics and Statistics Keywords: chi, distribution, elementary, independence, square, statistics, test License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0 Authors: Copyright Holders: Maintainers: Latest version: 1.12 (history) First publication date: Jul 5, 2008 2:22 pm -0500 Last revision to module: Jun 19, 2012 8:12 pm -0500

 PDF: m17191_1.12.pdf PDF file, for viewing content offline and printing. Learn more. EPUB: m17191_1.12.epub Electronic publication file, for viewing in handheld devices. Learn more. XML: m17191_1.12.cnxml XML that defines the structure and contents of the module, minus any included media files. Can be reimported in the editing interface. Learn more. Source Export ZIP: m17191_1.12.zip ZIP containing the module XML plus any included media files. Can be reimported in the editing interface. Learn more. Offline ZIP: m17191_1.12_offline.zip An offline HTML copy of the content. Also includes XML, included media files, and other support files. Learn more.

## Version History

 Version: 1.12 Jun 19, 2012 8:12 pm -0500 by Changes: ```The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence: Updated Example 1, fixed table in Example 3 and added the note "The expected value for each cell needs to be at least 5 in order to use this test."``` Version: 1.11 Jun 19, 2012 8:00 pm -0500 by Changes: ```The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence: Updated Example 1, fixed table in Example 3 and added note "NOTE: The expected value for each cell needs to be at least 5 in order to use this test."``` Version: 1.10 Feb 21, 2009 10:39 am -0600 by Changes: `The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence: Updated glossary item "Contingency Table."` Version: 1.9 Feb 5, 2009 11:10 am -0600 by Changes: `The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence: In the table with title "Number of Hours Worked Per Week by Volunteer Type (Observed)," added the column totals and the row totals. Under this table, completed the phrase "The table contains" with the phrase "observed (O) values (data).` Version: 1.8 Oct 27, 2008 9:19 pm -0500 by Changes: `roles updated` Version: 1.7 Jul 15, 2008 9:40 am -0500 by Changes: `removed image width params from media tags` Version: 1.6 Jul 9, 2008 3:57 pm -0500 by Changes: `table corrections again` Version: 1.5 Jul 9, 2008 3:52 pm -0500 by Changes: `table corrections` Version: 1.4 Jul 9, 2008 10:18 am -0500 by Changes: `Corrected example solution` Version: 1.3 Jul 8, 2008 8:00 pm -0500 by Changes: `post review edits` Version: 1.2 Jul 7, 2008 5:41 pm -0500 by Changes: `post review updates` Version: 1.1 Jul 5, 2008 2:42 pm -0500 by Changes: `Initial publication`

## How to Reuse and Attribute This Content

If you derive a copy of this content using a Connexions account and publish your version, proper attribution of the original work will be automatically done for you.

If you reuse this work elsewhere, in order to comply with the attribution requirements of the license (CC-BY 3.0), you must include

• the authors' names: Susan Dean, Barbara Illowsky
• the title of the work: The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence
• the Connexions URL where the work can be found: http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/

See the citation section below for examples you can copy.

## How to Cite and Attribute This Content

The following citation styles comply with the attribution requirements for the license (CC-BY 3.0) of this work:

### American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

Dean, S.; Illowsky, B. The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/, Jun 19, 2012.

### American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

Dean S, Illowsky B. The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence [Connexions Web site]. June 19, 2012. Available at: http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/.

### American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. (2012, June 19). The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/

### Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

Dean, Susan, and Barbara Illowsky. "The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence." Connexions. June 19, 2012. http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

Susan Dean and Barbara Illowsky, "The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence," Connexions, June 19, 2012, http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/.

### Chicago Manual of Style (Reference, in Author-Date style):

Dean, S., & Illowsky, B. 2012. The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence. Connexions, June 19, 2012. http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/.

### Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

Dean, Susan, and Barbara Illowsky. The Chi-Square Distribution: Test of Independence. Connexions. 19 June 2012 <http://cnx.org/content/m17191/1.12/>.