Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to collection information

OpenStax-CNX

You are here: Home » Content » A Comprehensive Outline of World History » The Near East: A.D. 1601 to 1700

Navigation

Table of Contents

Lenses

What is a lens?

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

This content is ...

Affiliated with (What does "Affiliated with" mean?)

This content is either by members of the organizations listed or about topics related to the organizations listed. Click each link to see a list of all content affiliated with the organization.
  • OrangeGrove display tagshide tags

    This collection is included inLens: Florida Orange Grove Textbooks
    By: Florida Orange Grove

    Click the "OrangeGrove" link to see all content affiliated with them.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

  • JVLA Affiliated

    This collection is included inLens: Jesuit Virtual Learning Academy Affiliated Material
    By: Jesuit Virtual Learning Academy

    Click the "JVLA Affiliated" link to see all content affiliated with them.

  • Bookshare

    This collection is included inLens: Bookshare's Lens
    By: Bookshare - A Benetech Initiative

    Comments:

    "Accessible versions of this collection are available at Bookshare. DAISY and BRF provided."

    Click the "Bookshare" link to see all content affiliated with them.

Also in these lenses

  • future perfect curriculum display tagshide tags

    This module is included inLens: Mark Dominic Kalil's Lens for general enquiry but focussed on a transformational curriculum
    By: Mark Dominic KalilAs a part of collection: "A Comprehensive Outline of World History (Organized by Region)"

    Click the "future perfect curriculum" link to see all content selected in this lens.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

Recently Viewed

This feature requires Javascript to be enabled.

Tags

(What is a tag?)

These tags come from the endorsement, affiliation, and other lenses that include this content.
 

The Near East: A.D. 1601 to 1700

Module by: Jack E. Maxfield. E-mail the author

THE NEAR EAST

Back to The Near East: A.D. 1501 to 1600

THE ARABIAN PENINSULA, THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL AREAS, & IRAQ AND SYRIA

The Turkish Ottomans continued their rule over almost all of this area. Some Europeans came back from the East Indies to settle in Mocha and Jiddah on the Arabian Red Sea coast, but otherwise there was little change on the peninsula. Intermittent warfare was waged with the Safavid Dynasty of Persia, but trade across the region continued. There was tremendous profit in spices and war was not to interfere with that. 3,000 tons of spices bought in the East Indies for the equivalent of $227,603 could be sold for $1,972,920 at Aleppa, Syria. (Ref. 211)

IRAN

Rejuvenated under Shah Abbas I, the Safavid dynasty wrested Baghdad and the Armenian border provinces away from the Turks, and there were some periods of tranquility, with progress in the arts and crafts. Beautiful, strong horses were plentiful and some were moved in caravans of 1,000 at a time. They were reserved for warfare or treated as luxuries with harnesses of silver, gold, and precious stones. Rather than use them for communication, human runners called “chatirs” were utilized. These runners were specially trained for the job from childhood and they were often of the road for 30 to 40 hours at a time. (Ref. 260)

The Shia fanaticism faded somewhat, at least in the court, and a lasting peace was finally concluded with the Ottomans in 1639. When Abbas’ grandson Shah Safi came to the throne, however he began to distinguish himself with wholesale executions. It was the beginning of “harem rule” in Persia, initiating a period of rapid decline. The Turks re-won Baghdad and the Cossacks raided on the Caucasus front.

The customs and dress of the ordinary Persians changed little over the centuries. Braudel (Ref. 260) quotes Chardin, after living 10 years in Persia, in 1686:

“I have seen Tamerlane’s costume, which is kept in the treasury of Ispahan and it is cut exactly like the clothes worn here today, without any different—dress in the East is not subject to fashion…”1

The same might be said of their cities. In spite of some degree of culture manifested in advanced arts and crafts, the streets of Ispahan remained without any type of paving, dirty in the summer and muddy in winter. Dead animals, blood from butchered ones, and human excrement increased the filth. An Italian visitor at the end of the century wrote that the humblest house in Palermo was better than the best in Ispahan. (Ref. 260)

ASIA MINOR

TURKEY

Constantinople, with 700,000 people, was larger than any city in Europe and needed all the Balkan sheep, Egyptian rice, beans, and corn, Black Sea grain and wood, and Anatolian oxen, camels, and horses to support it. It required all empire manpower as well as Russian slaves brought in to the salve market of Besistan. (Ref. 260) The sultan himself had 5,000 servants. After Suleiman I (in the last century) the sultans did not marry, basically to keep official wives from meddling in the state and the sultan’s mother became the ruler of the harem. The harem women were technically slaves and as Moslem women could not be enslaved, all these women were foreigners – Russians, Circassians, Venetians, Greeks, and especially women from the Caucasus, where there were many blue-eyed beauties. Originally the eunuchs were white and they came also chiefly from the Caucasus, but at the beginning of this century blacks were used. Since castration was also against Moslem law, these black boys were castrated by Coptic Christians near Aswan as they were brought up from deeper Africa. In theory, these eunuchs, too, were slaves, but they often gained great power because of their proximity to the sultan. As weak, sexually depleted sultans appeared, the Grand Vizier and the Chief of the Black Eunuchs, the “Aga of the women” became the real power in the empire. (Ref. 131) At the beginning of the century the new Sultan Ahmed I refused to strangle his brothers, as had been the custom, and simply locked them up in “the cage”, cut off from the rest of the world. Thereafter, occasionally when a sultan died without male issue, one of the brothers would be brought out of the cage to the throne, knowing nothing. Then the grand vizier would rule.

After signing a peace treaty with Austria in 1606, the Turks fought with Persia and lost Azerbaijan and Georgia. There was a long war with Venice (1645-1660) occasioned by Turkish designs on Crete and again the Ottomans lost, perhaps because of outdated weaponry. A Portuguese ship which was attacked by a Turkish galley in 1603 reported that it was “covered with arrows, up to the topmast.”2 All through this century, the Ottomans competed with Venetians for the mercenary services of Christian infantrymen of the western Balkans. (Ref. 279) Only in cavalry did Turkey seem to have an advantage. The empire had 40,000 horses in Asia and 100,000 in Europe, while hostile Persia had about 80,000. (Ref. 260) It is probable that the loss of Ottoman manpower and money in their 16th century military excursions, plus the effect of inflation after 1584 and the continuing rising population with a shrinking economy, produced an internal crisis in the early decades of this 17th century. (Ref. 8)

With the empire near collapse, a temporary restoration of power was promoted by the Albanian grand vizier, Muhammad Korprulu, his son Ahmed, and his brother-in-law Kara Mustapha, covering the period from 1656 to 1683. During that interval, in response to a Hungarian appeal for aid against the Emperor Leopold, Kara Mustapha again took an army of over 200,000 to the walls of Vienna. When the attack finally failed due to a coalition of Bavarians, Saxons, and Poles, led by John III Sobieski, Kara was strangled on order of the sultan and after this the empire began again to disintegrate, as both Buda and Belgrade fell. Kara’s fate was typical of the tenuous power of the grand viziers in the last of the century. Between 1683 and 1701 some 12 of these came and went. (Ref. 131)

The Treaty of Carlowitz of 1699 by which most of Hungary was surrendered to Austria marked a turning point in the European-Islamic military balance. Other factors also aggravated the crisis in the Ottoman state. New sea routes to the East left the great Ottoman markets stranded in a backwater. (Ref. 68( New World silver swamped the Turkish economy, cutting the value of the standard Ottoman coin to 50% of its former value, precipitating uncontrollable inflation. The Janissaries, who had reached 51,647 in number in this century, were already deteriorating due to the admission of free Moslems to their ranks in the previous century and the carefully trained slave-militia was no more. (Ref. 131)

ARMENIA

Throughout all of the Ottoman activity the Anatolian peninsula was honeycombed with trade routes established by Armenian merchants working out of the original Julfa in what was formerly Armenia and from their transplanted New Julfa out of Ispahan, peopling the monsoon ships, commission agents with dealings in Turkey, Russia, Europe, and the Indian Ocean. From their exile center in New Julfa, some traveled to Patna, Nepal and even Lhasa, Tibet. In each city they could be received and assisted by fellow Armenian merchants. Europe, too, felt the impact of these men. In Moscow they handled raw silk from Persia, From permanent settlements there they traveled overland to Sweden, where they met countrymen coming up with other merchandise from Amsterdam. Poland, Germany, England, France, and Venice were all “invaded” by these businessmen. There was a little Armenian colony at Lwow in Poland, with its own printing plants. The master of regular, trading caravans from Poland to the Ottoman Empire was always an Armenian. (Ref. 292)

Forward to The Near East: A.D. 1701 to 1800

Footnotes

  1. As quoted by Braudel (Ref. 260), page 323, from Chardin, Voyage en Perse et aux Indes orientales, 1686, Vol. IV, page 1
  2. Quotation from Braudel (Ref. 260), page 293

Collection Navigation

Content actions

Download:

Collection as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Module as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Add:

Collection to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks

Module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks