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    This module and collection are included inLens: Siyavula: Natural Sciences (Gr. 4-6)
    By: Siyavula

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How energy affects liquids

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

NATURAL SCIENCES

Grade 5

ENERGY AND CHANGE

Module 33

HOW ENERGY AFFECTS LIQUIDS AND GASES

ACTIVITY 1:

To determine how heat affects water:

[LO 1.2.1; LO 1.2.2; LO 1.2.3; LO 1.3.1; LO 2.1]

An investigation to determine how heat affects water:

Form groups of six and do the following:

  1. Collect the following:

an empty plastic bottle

a cork that can be used to close the bottle

a drinking straw

a piece of paper

dye to colour the water

water

a kettle or any other appliance for boiling water

a plastic basin that is big enough to hold the bottle (big enough for two or three bottles).

  1. Fill the bottle with water.
  2. Add dye to the water and shake until it is mixed properly.
  3. Make a hole through the cork and insert the straw through it (the straw should fit tightly).
  4. Seal the bottle, using the cork. Ensure that the liquid in the bottle rises slightly into the straw. (This will happen when you cork the bottle, if there is enough dye.)
  5. Cut two slits in a piece of paper and thread the paper onto the straw, positioning it in line with the water level.
  6. Boil a kettle of water.
  7. Pour the boiling water into the plastic basin and place the bottle of dyed water into it.

Write down what you observe.

Discuss what you observe and write down the group’s statement of the events:

Now replace the warm water in the basin with cold water. What happens?

Explain:

Make a sketch of the apparatus and indicate what happened. Supply the necessary captions.

For you to find out:

  1. We measure the temperature of matter (the degree of heat of the matter) with a thermometer. Find out how a thermometer works and write down your explanation (it is based on the effect of energy on matter). Draw a simple sketch to illustrate your answer.

  1. Liquid fuel such as petroleum expands when it is heated. Why would a motor vehicle be dangerous if the manufactures did not take a range of set precautions?

What can they do to solve the problem? Hint: it has something to do with the petrol tank.

ACTIVITY 2:

To determine how energy affects gases

[LO 1.2.1; LO 1.2.2; LO 1.3.1; LO 2.1]

Select a partner and do the following investigation to determine how energy affects gases.

  1. Use an empty cool drink bottle similar to the type that comes with lunchboxes.
  2. Screw on the cap.
  3. Pour hot water into a basin. Take care to not burn yourself.
  4. Place the empty bottle into the hot water. Try with a stick to push it below the surface and keep it there for about two minutes.
Figure 1
Figure 1 (graphics1.png)
  1. What happens?

  1. Explain why this happens (in your explanation, say whether the bottle was really empty).

  1. Remove the bottle and cool it down in cold water. What happens?

  1. Explain why it happens:

  1. Deduction: there is in the bottle and it

when it is heated and when it is cooled.

Assessment

LEARNING OUTCOME 1: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONSThe learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

We know this when the learner:

1.2.1 follows instructions for setting up apparatus and executing observations;

1.2.2 collects data from observation by means of sketches and labels;

1.2.3 perseveres until a result is obtained or continues to observe over an extended period of time;

1.3 evaluates data and communicates findings: provides feedback on progress in group context, as well as the eventual result:

1.3.1 presents data obtained from observation that are relevant to the target question.

LEARNING OUTCOME 2:ConstructinG scienCE knowledgeThe learners will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS

We know this when the learner:

2.1 recalls meaningful information: the minimum requirement is the ability to describe the features and characteristics of objects, materials and organisms in simple terms.

2.1.3 say whether energy can be converted from one form to another.

Memorandum

Activity 1

The coloured liquid moves up into the straw.

The coloured water expands as a result of the heat, because the water particles get more energy and therefore move away further from each other; the glass of the bottle expands much less because solids do not expand as much as liquids; the water rises in the tube.

The coloured water in the tube drops.

The coloured water emits heat to the cold water in the bowl; that means that the energy of the particles decreases; they move less; the volume decreases.

Labels:

  • straw
  • paper marker
  • cork
  • bottle
  • coloured water
  • bowl with hot water

1. Thermometer

Labels:

  • bulb with mercury/coloured liquid
  • tube
  • scale

Function:

If the environment in which the thermometer is placed (e.g. a solution) is warm, the liquid in the bulb will absorb heat and expand; the liquid rises in the tube. If the solution is cold, the liquid in the tube will emit heat and shrink and the liquid will drop in the tube.

2. If it becomes warm, the petrol expands. If the tank does not have an opening, the petrol cannot expand and the tank bursts.

Motor manufacturers install a tube near the petrol tank inlet.

Activity 2

5. The bottle becomes distended.

6. There was air in the bottle, therefore it was not really empty; the air absorbed energy in the form of heat, the particles started moving more / collided harder against each other, and the air expanded.

7. The bottle shrinks to its normal size. If the water is very cold, it might even become indented.

8. The air particles lose energy in the form of heat, move less and the air shrinks. If the water is colder than the air was when the lid was screwed on, the bottle will become indented.

9. Air; expands; shrinks.

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