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    This module and collection are included inLens: Siyavula: Natural Sciences (Gr. 7-9)
    By: Siyavula

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Om te ontdek hoe diere aangepas is om in hulle habitat te oorleef

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

NATUURWETENSKAPPE

Lewe en Lewenswyse

OPVOEDERS AFDELING

Memorandum

  • Gewerweldes (vertebrate) en ongewerweldes (invertebrate)
  • Visse, amfibieë, reptiele, voëls, soogdiere
  • Gemeenskaplike kenmerk (bl. 10): ongewerweld

Tabel:

1. Seester, see-anemoon

2. Mossel, slak, seekat

3. Erdwurm

4. Sprinkaan, kriek, besie

5. Bosluis, spinnekop, skerpioen

6. Kreef, krewel/garnaal, krap

7. Honderdpoot, duisendpoot

Groep 1: 1, 2 en 3

Groep 2: 4, 5, 6 en 7

Rede: teenwoordigheid van eksoskelet (uitwendige skelet) of gelede pote al dan nie.

Opdrag 2:

Sleutel: altyd twee opsies, uitoefening van opsies moet na insekte lei. Volgende kenmerke moet ingesluit wees: ongewerweld, geleedpotig, eksoskelet, 6 pote.

LEERDER AFDELING

Inhoud

AKTIWITEIT: Om te ontdek hoe diere aangepas is om in hulle habitat te oorleef [LU 2.2]

DIEREVERSKEIDENHEID

Kan jy nog onthou wat jy in graad 6 oor die indeling van diere geleer het? Jy het geleer dat diere in twee hoofgroepe verdeel word, naamlik die

_________________________________ en _______________________________

Jy het ook geleer dat vertebrate in vyf groepe verdeel word:

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Kom ons kyk nou ‘n bietjie na die invertebrate (ongewerweldes).

Ons gaan verskeie voorbeelde van die invertebrate bestudeer. Jy sal agterkom dat hulle almal bepaalde eienskappe deel, maar aan die anderkant ook baie verskil. Ons gaan op twee maniere probeer om dit maklik te maak om die ooreenkomste en verskille te verstaan en te onthou: ons gaan eerstens kyk hoe die diere aangepas is om te kan oorleef (dit bring verskille tussen verskillende diere mee), en ons gaan die diere op grond van die ooreenkomste en verskille klassifiseer. As jy dinge klassifiseer, beteken dit dat jy dié met dieselfde eienskappe in een groep plaas.

Bioloë het al meer as 2 miljoen verskillende soorte lewende organismes geïdentifiseer en nuwe soorte word nog steeds ontdek. Daar is ‘n streng internasionale kode waarvolgens lewende organismes benoem, gesorteer en geklassifiseer word. Dit is gegrond op die werk van Linnaeus wat voorgestel het dat elke organisme twee name kry. Vandag het alle lewende organismes twee wetenskaplike Griekse of Latynse name:

  • Die geslagsnaam (genus/genera) wat altyd met ‘n hoofletter geskryf word, bv. Panthera vir die groot katte.
  • Die spesienaam wat met ‘n kleinletter geskryf word, bv. leo vir die leeu.

Die leeu se volledige naam is dus Panthera leo terwyl die luiperd s’n Panthera pardus is. Dieselfde geld vir die ongewerwelde diere (invertebrate).

Ons gaan eers ‘n oorsig van die invertebrate doen sodat jy die groep met sy kleiner groeperings leer ken. Vir hierdie doel gaan ons na die ooreenkomste en verskille tussen die diere kyk.

Daarna gaan ons enkele voorbeelde in meer besonderhede bestudeer, sodat jy kan sien hoe die diere by die omstandighede in hul ekosisteme aangepas is.

KLASSIFISERING VAN DIE INVERTEBRATE

Hieronder word ‘n verskeidenheid invertebrate voorgestel.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (graphics1.png)

Kan jy nog onthou watter kenmerk(e) vir al hierdie diere geld? ____________________________________________________________________

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Probeer hulle nou op grond van hul kenmerke in ongeveer agt groepe verdeel. In die tabel word vir elke groep een of twee kenmerke gegee wat dit vir jou makliker sal maak.

Table 1
GROEP KENMERK DIERE
1 Geen kop, slegs een opening in die liggaam, met ‘arms’ rondom die mond  
2 Sagte liggaam, groot spiervoet, soms arms, dikwels met ‘n skulp  
3 Lang ronde liggaam wat uit ringvormige segmente bestaan, sonder pote  
4 Harde of taai liggaam met ses gelede pote  
5 Harde of taai liggaam met agt gelede pote  
6 Harde of taai liggaam met tien gelede pote  

Probeer nou die ses groepe in die tabel saamgroepeer om twee hoofgroepe te vorm:

Groep 1 bestaande uit groepe __________________________________

Groep 2 bestaande uit groepe __________________________________

Verduidelik hoekom jy hulle so gegroepeer het:

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Vergelyk jou indeling met die volgende diagram:

Figure 2
Figure 2 (graphics2.png)

Opdrag 2:

Stel ‘n sleutel saam wat iemand wat ‘n vreemde insek gevang het, sal lei tot die antwoord dat dit ‘n insek is.

ASSESSERING

Leeruitkomste 2:Die leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Assesseringstandaard 2.2: Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder inligting kategoriseer: vergelyk kenmerke van verskillende kategorieë voorwerpe, organismes en gebeurtenisse.

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