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    This module and collection are included inLens: Siyavula: Natural Sciences (Gr. 7-9)
    By: Siyavula

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Om die terme materie, atome, molekule, elemente en verbindings te kan beskryf

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

NATUURWETENSKAPPE

Materie, Meting en Reaksies

Materie en Meting

OPVOEDER AFDELING

Memorandum

Opdrag 1:

1. Materie is die boustof waarvan alle dinge gemaak is.

2. Natuurlik: staal; diamante; koper; graniet; katoen; yster

Sinteties: plastiek; glas; seep; nylon; rubber

Definisies:Atoom: Die kleinste deeltjie waaruit alle materie opgebou is.

Element: ‘n Stof wat uit slegs een soort atoom bestaan.

Molekule: ‘n Groepie atome wat saam ‘n eenheid vorm wat die kenmerke van die betrokke stof toon.

Verbinding: ‘n Stof wat uit twee of meer atome bestaan en in ander stowwe gedeel kan word.

LEERDER AFDELING

Inhoud

Skeikunde vorm ‘n onderafdeling van die leerarea Natuurwetenskappe. Skeikunde is die wetenskap wat handel oor die samestelling en kenmerke van stowwe (materie). Dit staan ook bekend as Chemie en ons almal beoefen dit elke dag. Indien jy in die oggend vir jouself koffie maak of springmielies skiet, is jy besig om chemie te gebruik.

AKTIWITEIT: Om die terme materie, atome, molekule, elemente en verbindings te kan beskryf [LU 2.2]

1. Wat is materie?

Materie is die wetenskaplike naam vir die boustof waarvan alle dinge gemaak is. Alle voorwerpe op die aarde is van materie gemaak, bv. die boek waaruit jy lees, die tafel waarop jy skryf of die lug wat jy inasem. Dis egter nie net die nie-lewende dinge wat van materie gemaak is nie, maar ook die lewende dinge soos plante en diere.

Opdrag 1:

1. Skryf nou in jou eie woorde neer wat materie is:

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

2. Alhoewel baie nie-lewende stowwe natuurlik voorkom, moet dit eers gesuiwer of verwerk word voordat dit gebruik kan word. Voorbeelde hiervan is yster wat eers van ystererts geskei moet word en olie wat eers geraffineer moet word. Ander stowwe word weer gemaak deur verskillende grondstowwe, bv. katoen, hout en wol te meng en te behandel. Hierdie stowwe staan as sintetiese stowwe bekend.

Klassifiseer die volgende stowwe as natuurlik of sinteties. Omsirkel die natuurlike stowwe en onderstreep die sintetiese stowwe.

Tabel 1
staal; plastiek; glas; diamante;
koper; seep; graniet; nylon;
rubber; goud; suurstof; yster;
sout; asyn; leer; koffie

Atome, molekules, elemente en verbindings

Alle materie in die wêreld bestaan uit baie klein deeltjies of partikels. Dit word atome genoem; dit is die kleinste deeltjies waaruit materie opgebou is en kan slegs mikroskopies waargeneem word. ‘n Hoeveelheid atome word saamgevoeg en vorm ‘n molekule net soos ‘n klomp bakstene saam ‘n muur vorm.

‘n Element is ‘n stof wat uit slegs een soort atoom bestaan. ‘n Element kan dus nie in enigiets anders verdeel word nie. ‘n Verbinding is ‘n stof wat uit twee of meer soorte atome bestaan en in ander stowwe gedeel kan word. Sommige van hierdie stowwe kan elemente wees . Water is die algemeenste verbinding wat ons ken. Water bestaan uit die elemente waterstof en suurstof.

Die verskil tussen elemente en verbindings kan ook gesien word as die verskil tussen ‘n brood en sy bestanddele. Die “elemente” is die bestanddele van die brood, nl. suurdeeg, eiers, water, meel en bakpoeier. Die “verbinding” is die brood wat van hierdie bestanddele gebak is.

Figuur 1
Figuur 1 (graphics1.png)

Beskryf die volgende terme in jou eie woorde:

Atome: ______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Element: _____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Molekule: ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Verbinding: __________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Assessering

Leeruitkomste 2:Die leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Assesseringstandaard 2.2: Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder inligting kan kategoriseer: vergelyk kenmerke van verskillende kategorieë voorwerpe, organismes en gebeurtenisse.

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