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    This module and collection are included inLens: Siyavula: Natural Sciences (Gr. 4-6)
    By: Siyavula

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m die gebruik van sterre en planete by die ontwikkeling van kalenders te kan bespreek

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

NATUURWETENSKAPPE

Die aarde en daarbuite

Die Sterre

OPVOEDERS AFDELING

Memorandum

1. Ster: Hemelliggaam wat lig uitstraal. Bestaan hoofsaaklik uit helium en waterstof wat brand.

Planeet: Lewelose hemelliggaam wat sy lig van die son ontvang.

2. Kyk p.2 in die module.

LEERDER AFDELING

Inhoud

Die oermens het die bewegings van sterre en planete in mites en legendes probeer verklaar. Die antieke Grieke was meer wetenskaplik, maar selfs hulle het verkeerdelik geglo dat die aarde die middelpunt van die heelal was.

Slegs sedert ‘n paar honderd jaar gelede het ons besef dat die aarde ‘n baie klein, nietige stippeltjie is. Ons klein planeet draai om die son, wat op sy beurt slegs een van die ongeveer 100 000 miljoene sterre in ons sonnestelsel is en ons weet nou dat daar bowendien nog minstens 1 000 miljoen ander sterrestelsels bestaan.

Figuur 1
Figuur 1 (graphics1.png)

AKTIWITEIT: Om die gebruik van sterre en planete by die ontwikkeling van kalenders te kan bespreek [LU 2.1]

Die Christenkalender

  • Hierdie kalender gebruik die son as hooftydhouer. Een jaar is dus 365¼ dae lank - die presiese lengte wat dit neem vir die aarde om een maal om die son te draai. Die beginpunt van die Christelike kalender is die geboorte van Jesus Christus. Jare voor die gebeurtenis word voor Christus of vC genoem, en die jare na sy geboorte staan bekend as na Christus of nC.
  • Hierdie kalender word die algemeenste oor die wêreld gebruik (ook deur nie-Christene).

Die Moslemkalender

  • Die Moslemgemeenskap gebruik die maan as sy tydhouer. (Die maan is stil en leweloos en maak geen lig van sy eie nie, maar weerkaats slegs die lig van die son. Die maan is dus nie ‘n ster nie.) ‘n Jaar is 354 of 355 dae en daarom word daar in 30-jaar siklusse gewerk.

Die Joodse Kalender

  • Die Jode gebruik in hulle kalender die maan om die dae en maande te tel en die son om die jare te tel. Die beginpunt is die Bybelse skepping van die aarde.
  • Hoewel die Joodse en Christenkalenders die son gebruik om die jare te tel, stem die datums van die Jode en Christene se nuwejaar nie ooreen nie.

Die Chinese Kalender

  • Die son en die maan word deur die Chinese gebruik as tydhouers. Hulle jare is 353, 354 of 355 dae lank en daarom word jaarsiklusse gebruik: 60 jaar vorm die hoofsiklus met 12 jaar periodes binne die siklus: 12 jaar en ‘n dertiende skrikkeljaar elk. Elk van die jare is na ‘n verskillende dier vernoem.
  • Elke dier het eienskappe wat, soos die Chinese glo, oorgedra word aan diegene wat in daardie jaar gebore is.

VIND UIT

1. Gebruik ‘n verklarende woordeboek of enige ander betroubare bron en vind uit wat is die verskil tussen ‘n ster en ‘n planeet.

Tabel 1
Ster: _________________________________________________
  _________________________________________________
  _________________________________________________
Planeet: _________________________________________________
  _________________________________________________
  _________________________________________________

2. Beskryf hoe die kalenders van die Christene, Jode, Moslems en Chinese van mekaar verskil.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Assessering

Leeruitkomste 2:Die leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Assesseringstandaard 2.1:Dis duidelik wanneer die leerderbetekenisvolle inligting onthou.

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