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Om oor die rekonstruering, identifisering en bewaring van fossiele te kan gesels

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

NATUURWETENSKAPPE

Die aarde en daarbuite

Fossiele

OPVOEDERS AFDELING

Memorandum

Opdrag 8:

Identifikasie van fossiele

1. Korale

2. Word naby Ceres in die Wes Kaap in rotslae aangetref. Hierdie korale is omtrent 400 miljoen jaar gelede in die see gevorm.

3. Broodboomfamilie

4. Aard goed in enige klam, beskutte area.

5. Baie hoë temperature

Verdamping

Grondverskuiwing wat water laat wegvloei het.

Oorbenutting van die natuur, ens.

6. In die dieper rotse

LEERDER AFDELING

Inhoud

AKTIWITEIT: Om oor die rekonstruering, identifisering en bewaring van fossiele te kan gesels [LU 1.2, LU 2.3]

Rekonstruksie van ‘n dinosourusfossiel

  • Party dinosourusfossiele word per ongeluk opgespoor wanneer die lae in valleie, kranse en woestynkoppies na miljoene jare as gevolg van verwering (erosie) ontbloot word. Soms ontbloot werkers in myne of padbouers dit.
  • Wanneer ‘n paleontoloog ‘n fossiel vind, word die ligging baie versigtig aangeteken. Elke los been kry ‘n nommer. Die bene wat los lê, word saamgeneem sodat dit bestudeer kan word. Die wat in rotse ingebed lê, word baie versigtig verwyder. Partykeer word van die omringende rots met skopgrawe verwyder, maar namate die been ontbloot word, moet paleontoloë beitels, hamers en bore gebruik. Sodra die boonste helfte van die fossiel ontbloot is, word dit met nat papier bedek. Dan word dit met verbande toegedraai wat in gips geweek is. Dit verhard en vorm ‘n beskermende dop oor die fossiel. Die grond rondom word dan weggegrawe en die hele fossiel word omgedop. Die ander helfte van die fossiel word dan op dieselfde manier behandel. Wanneer die fossiel heeltemal met ‘n beskermende dop bedek is, word dit versigtig na ‘n museum vervoer.
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1 (graphics1.png)
    By die museum word die beskermende dop verwyder en die fossiel word verder uit die rots gekap. Hierdie proses kan jare duur en soms moet die bene met plastiek versterk word, aangesien dit al so verkrummel het. Die presiese posisie van elke been word bepaal voordat die fossiel saamgevoeg word. Soms word drade, stawe en staalstrukture gebruik om die fossiel te rekonstrueer. Vermiste dele word gebou of van ander fossiele geneem. Sonder hierdie rekonstruksie sou ons nooit geweet het hoe die dinosourusse werklik gelyk het nie.
Figure 2
Figure 2 (graphics2.png)

Identifikasie van fossiele

OPDRAG 8

  • Bestudeer die volgende afbeeldings van fossiele en beantwoord die vrae:
Figure 3
Figure 3 (graphics3.png)

1. Wat word hierdie fossiel vandag genoem?

_____________________________________________________________________

2. Waar word hierdie fossiele gewoonlik in kolonies aangetref?

_____________________________________________________________________

Figure 4
Figure 4 (graphics4.png)

Williamsonia

3. Met watter boomfamilie toon bostaande fossielblaar duidelike ooreenkomste?

_____________________________________________________________________

4. Eeue gelede is dit slegs in tropiese woude aangetref. Waar word dit vandag aangetref?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Figure 5
Figure 5 (graphics5.png)

5. Bostaande afbeelding is die fossiel van die Gosiutichthys (vis). Die vis is dood toe die meer waarin hulle gelewe het, opgedroog het. Verskaf drie moontlike redes waarom die meer opgedroog het.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

6. Dit is ook belangrik om die ouderdom van fossiele te kan bepaal. Daar is verskeie maniere om die ouderdom te bepaal. Soms vergelyk wetenskaplikes die hoeveelheid gas in ‘n rotsmonster met die hoeveelheid kalk in die oorspronklike rots om uit te werk hoe oud die fossiel is.

Die ouderdom van fossiele kan ook bepaal word met behulp van radio-aktiwiteit.

Waar sal die oudste fossiele aangetref word, in die vlakker of in die dieper rotse?

_____________________________________________________________________

Bewaring van fossiele

  • Fossiele kan ook in gietvorms bewaar word. Wanneer ‘n stukkie been in ‘n harde rots versteen het, kan dit verweer en ‘n presiese afdruk in die rots laat. Dit staan bekend as ‘n gietvorm.

Groepwerk

Maak ‘n afgietvorm van jou hand.

Benodigdhede:

‘n skinkbord met klam sand;

‘n strook karton (5 cm x 38 cm);

gips;

water en

skuifspelde.

METODE:

  • Maak die sand gelyk en plaas jou hand ferm daarop sodat dit ‘n afdruk laat.
  • Plaas die kartonstrook om die afdruk en gebruik die skuifspeld om dit vas te hou.
  • Die kartonstrook moet effens in die sand ingedruk word sodat dit ‘n verhewe raam om die afdruk vorm.
  • Meng genoeg gips sodat dit die karton-sirkel sal vul tot net onder die rand.
  • Laat die gips droog word.
  • Verwyder die kartonstrook en lig die gips uit die sand.

Figure 6
Figure 6 (graphics6.png)

Table 1
Assesseringskriteria 1. 2. 3. 4.
1. Kennis en begrip van fossiele (LU 2.3)        
2. Eksperiment (LU 1.2): Instruksies is gevolg.        
3. Afwerking: noukeurig        
4. Samewerking in groep        

Assessering

Leeruitkomste 1:Die leerder is in staat om met selfvertroue op weetgierigheid oor natuurlike verskynsels te regeer, en om binne die konteks van wetenskap, tegnologie en die omgewing verbande te ondersoek en probleme op te los.

Assesseringstandaard 1.2:Dis duidelik wanneer die leerderondersoeke uitvoer en data versamel.

Leeruitkomste 2:Die leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Assesseringstandaard 2.3:Dis duidelik wanneer die leerderinligting interpreteer.

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A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

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Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

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