This module is part of the collection, *A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering*. The LaTeX source files for this collection were created using an optical character recognition technology, and because of this process there may be more errors than usual. Please contact us if you discover any errors.

MATLAB has control statements like those in most computer languages. We will only study the `for`

loop here. See the MATLAB manual
for details on `if`

and `while`

statements.

What for loops do is allow a statement or a group of statements to be repeated. For example,

`for i = 1:n,x(i) = 0,end`

assigns the value 0 to the first `n`

elements of the array `x`

. If `n`

is less than 1,
the instruction is still valid but nothing will be done. If `n`

is not defined, then
the following message will appear:

```
??? Undefined function or variable.
Symbol in question==>n
```

If `n`

contains a real value, the integer part of `n`

is used. If `n`

is a complex
number, the integer part of the real part is taken. (This should, however, be
avoided.) If `x`

is not declared earlier or is of smaller dimension than `n`

, then
extra memory is allocated.

The command end must follow the command for. If it is not present,
MATLAB will wait for remaining statements until you type *t**he* command
end, and nothing will be executed in the meantime.

More than one statement may be included in the loop. The statement `1:n`

is the way to specify all the integer values between 1 and `n`

. A
step different than 1 may be specified. For example, the statement `for i=1:2:5,x(i)=1,end`

is equivalent to `x(1)=1,x(5)=1`

. Negative steps
are also allowed, as in `i=n:-1:1`

.

We may use a `for`

loop to draw a circle of radius 1. Type

```
≫ j=sqrt(-1);
≫ n=360;
≫ for i=1:n,circle(1)=exp(2*j*i*pi/n);end;
≫plot(circle)
```

Note how easy it is to plot a curve. But also note how slowly the for loop
is executed. MATLAB is not very good at executing things one by one. It
prefers, by far, a vector-oriented statement. Using the range specification as
in the `for`

loop, it is possible to speed up the process by replacing the explicit
`for`

loop by an implicit `for`

loop using the colon, like this:

`≫ circle = exp((2*j*pi/n)*[1:n]);`

Note how much faster this command is executed. In general, `for`

loops should
be avoided as much as possible. For example, the first `for`

loop you typed
could have been replaced by the command `x=zeros(1,n);`

, which is much
more efficient. The function `zeros`

fills the variable with 0's to the specified
size. Similarly, the function `ones`

fills the variable with 1's. The size can also
be determined by the size of the argument. If `A`

is a matrix of size `m,n`

, then
the command `B=ones(a)`

fills the matrix `B`

with 1's and forces the matrix `B`

to have exactly the same size as the matrix `A`

.

**Avoiding for Loops.** Since

`for`

loops are very inefficient in MATLAB
(they are computed sequentially, adding several more computations for every
loop), it is preferable to use the matrix capabilities of MATLAB to replace
`for`

loops and speed up processing time.- Replace the for loop

`≫ for i = 1:10, ≫ x(i) = i; ≫ end;`

with

`≫ x = 1:10`

to get

`x = [1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10]`

- Replace the
`for`

loop

`≫ z = something; ≫ for i = 1:10, ≫ x(i) = z*i; ≫ end;`

with

`≫ z = something ≫ x = z*(1:10);`

to get

`x = [z 2*z 3*z ... 10*z]`

- Replace the
`for`

loop

`≫ z = something; ≫ x(1) = z; ≫ for i = 2:10. ≫ x(i) = z*x(i-1); ≫ end;`

with

`≫ z = something; ≫ x = z.^(1:10);`

to get

`x = [z z**2 z**3 ... z**10]`

- Replace the
`for`

loop

`≫ for i = 0:2:100, ≫ x(i) = 1.0*exp(j*2*pi*i/100); ≫ end;`

with

`≫ x = 1.0*exp(j*2*pi*(0:2:100)/100);`

to get

`x = [exp(0) exp(j*4*pi/100) ... exp(j*200*pi/100)]`

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