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Run-up to the reconstruction and development programme

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Grade 8

SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Module 1

RUN-UP TO THE RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (RDP)

South African history is characterised by colonialism, racism, apartheid, sexism and repressive labour and other legislation that has dominated over the economic and social environment since the country was founded in 1652. These factors resulted in deep-seated inequalities in the South African community, which led to revolutionary resistance towards the end of the 20th century, and eventually to the establishment of a democratically elected government in 1994.

Activity 1: Colonialism

Group:

Discuss your understanding of the concept COLONIALISM and name examples from other parts of the world where countries / states were colonized. Also indicate which states were involved in the colonization of Africa and South Africa. Which “inequalities” arose in South Africa on account of colonization?

  • Provide a brief report for your presentation to the class. Write this report on a folio. After the class discussion, write a brief summary:

Activity 2: Racism

Group:

Discuss your understanding of the concept RACISM and explain how this affects everyday life. What do you regard as the main disadvantages of racism, i.e. which “inequalities” resulted from it in South Africa? Does racism occur in other countries?

  • Provide a brief report for presentation to the class.

Activity 3: Apartheid

Group:

Discuss your understanding of the concept APARTHEID. why did it arise and what were the implications for South African society, i.e. which “inequalities” resulted from apartheid in South Africa?

  • Provide a brief report for presentation to the class.

Activity 4: Sexism

Group:

Explain what you understand the concept SEXISM to mean and indicate what you see as disadvantages related to it, i.e. which “inequalities” have arisen in South Africa because of sexism.

  • Provide a brief report for presentation to the class.

Activity 5: Repressive Legislation

Group:

Explain how you understand the concept REPRESSIVE LEGISLATION and provide examples of such legislation that was enforced on the South African community by the previous government. Which “inequalities” were established by such legislation in South Africa?

  • Provide a brief report for presentation to the class.

Activity 6: Summative Analysis

SELF:

each learner is required to provide a written analysis of each of the above concepts, under the headings given below. A neat presentation of TWO pages, at most, must be prepared and handed in and a brief summary must be entered: [LO 2.1

1. Analysis of concepts.

2. Examples to illustrate the concepts.

3. Effects on the social and employment environment in South Africa.

To deal with these “problems”, the present government instituted the RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (RDP) in 1994. This programme was meant to fulfil the following broad principles, which were aimed at eliminating “inequalities”.

It had to be:

1. an integrated and sustainable programme (i.e. everyone was to be included)

2. directed towards people (i.e. all human resources were to be developed),

3. aiming to provide safety and security for all (i.e. the Constitution had to safeguard everyone);

4. that would promote nation building (i.e. earlier dividing lines separating rich and poor, white and black, had to be eliminated)

5. and would combine reconstruction and development (i.e. full access to work and services) and

6. serve democratic objectives (meaning that all would have a say, even at grassroots level).

To meet these requirements, RDP objectives are grouped according to FIVE programmes that were to be mutually supportive:

1. provision of basic needs of the population;

2. development of manpower;

3. development of the economy;

4. democratisation of the state and society;

5. implementation of the RDP.

Activity 7: The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP)

[LO 2.1]

SELF:

Do research on the Reconstruction and Development Programme and explain briefly what the government’s aim is with each of the programmes regarding the intention to eliminate the inequalities of the past. Provide a neat report (no more

than one page per programme, i.e. five pages.) Summarize your reports on the different programmes.

: Reference:

  • ANC, 1994: THE RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVEOPMENT PROGRAMME: A Policy Framework. Umanyano Publications, PO Box 3851, Johannesburg, 1994

Assessment

Table 1
Learning outcomes (LOs)
LO 2
SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTThe learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of sustainable growth, reconstruction and development, and to reflect critically on related processes
Assessment standards (ASs)
We know this when the learner:
2.1 investigates and describes how the national budget is used to influence growth and redress economic inequalities;
2.2 investigates how the RDP could have been used to stimulate economic growth and restructuring (e.g. capacity building jobs);
2.3 discusses the importance of savings for investments;
2.4 investigates and reports on how technology can improve productivity, economic growth, living standards, etc.

Synopsis of Module

Assessment Standard 2.1

ACTIVITY 1:COLONIALISM

GROUP:

COLONIALISM is the economic, political and social policy by which a powerful state maintains and extends its control over regions and peoples; the way in which colonies are gained or retained.

Examples of colonies:

  • LESOTHO is a former British colony
  • ZAIRE is a former colony of Belgium
  • MOZAMBIQUE is a former colony of Portugal
  • SOUTH AFRICA is a former colony of Britain
  • Name more examples!

Inequalities:

  • level of civilization, education, etc.

ACTIVITY 2:RACISM

GROUP:

RACISM is the supposition that character and ability is determined by race – it relies on a way of thinking that accepts that a particular race is superior and has the right to rule over other races.

Occurrence in the RSA:

    • Differentiation between people of white, black, coloured and Indian extraction.

Disadvantages:

  • Prejudice / discrimination with regard to education, employment, marriage, etc.

Also present in:

  • The Netherlands, with regard to Turkish people
  • Australia, with regard to Aborigines
  • Germany (in the time of Hitler) with regard to Jews
  • Find further examples.

ACTIVITY 3:APARTHEID

GROUP:

APARTHEID is a system involving separation and being separate; a political policy that strives to have each group of colour develop separately from every other colour group according to the nature, aptitudes and traditions of each; autogenous development.

  • In South Africa apartheid as a policy was enshrined in legislation, which meant that society was organised on the basis of race.
  • This resulted in inequality that involved employment opportunities, public facilities and public places.
  • (Find further examples)

ACTIVITY 4:SEXISM

GROUP:

SEXISM is discrimination between male and female that is applied with regard to social, political and work relations.

Inequalities:

  • discrimination regarding certain employment opportunities, e.g. for ministers of religion, etc.

ACTIVITY 5:REPRESSIVE LEGISLATION

GROUP:

REPRESSIVE LEGISLATION involves any legislation that is promulgated with the purpose of discriminating against particular groups on the basis of specific preferences or aversions, e.g. race, gender, age, etc.

Examples in the RSA:

  • The Group Areas Act, the Law on Mixed Marriages, etc. (Expand).

Inequalities:

    • Groups / people were prevented from exercising their basic rights as human beings. (Provide examples)

ACTIVITY 6:SUMMATIVE ANALYSIS

SELF:

each learner is required to provide his / her own written response to each of the above concepts - two pages of writing, at most - under the following headings:

1. Analysis of concepts

2. Examples to illustrate the concepts

3. Effects on the social and employment environment in South Africa.

ACTIVITY 7:RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (RDP)

SELF:

each learner is required to do research concerning the RDP and to explain briefly how the programme is intended to eliminate the inequalities of the past.

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