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The historian and concepts

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

Social Sciences

HISTORY

Grade 8

LAND AND POWER

Module 1

THE HISTORIAN AND CONCEPTS

The historian and concepts

The concepts land and power are closely related to one another. A person is allocated to the ruling class or the working class on the basis of his or her productive ability. The product then includes capital (money), land, buildings, mines, machinery, etc.

The conflict between the two classes therefore is based on the contrasting relationships that they experience in relation to the product. The ruling class, which can also be called the capitalist class or the middle class or the bourgeoisie (French Revolution), possesses the means of production, while the working class or proletariat or Bolsheviks (Russian Revolution) sell their labour by working in the fields, in the factories or in the mines belonging to the ruling class.

  • In order to grasp this conflict, the historian, in other words all the learners in the History class, must ask complicated questions about all conflict situations, such as:

1. What belongs to whom?

2. Who does what work?

3. Who works for whom?

Activity 1: Group work (Getting to know one another) [LO1.1]

  • Divide into discussion groups.

Assignment 1:

Discuss the division of work in a normal family as your group knows it. Ensure that each member of the group gets an opportunity to have a say.

Assignment 2:

Discuss the degree of cooperation between the ruling class (parents/guardians) and the working class (children) to ensure the smooth functioning of the household.

Assignment 3:

Now complete the following:

(a) My own place in our home is my_______

I am proud of it because __________

(b) My parents/guardians are employees/employers of______________

(c) I am not a burden to my family, because I take responsibility for_________

Activity 2: Group assessment exercise [LO 1.1]

Assignment 4:

Each learner is now given a turn to read his/her answers to Assignment 3 and each member of the group indicates what mark he/she wants to allocate to it. If necessary, a member of the group can motivate why a lower or a better mark is necessary.

The group must agree on the mark. The following simple scale is used to determine if the learner is an ADVANTAGE to his/her family.

1 = The learner at least lives with his/her family.

2 = The learner is sometimes, or has been of use to his/her family.

3 = The learner is of real use to his/her family.

4 = The learner’s contribution to his/her family is an outstanding performance.

At the end of this module, you must hand in a project on The French Revolution. You will receive the necessary information step for step. Today you only have to

(a) inform the people at home that you are looking for information on the topic and

(b) look up/find out the definition of revolution. Complete:

Revolution:___________________________________

Source:_______________________________________

EXAMPLE of the recording of information that is obtained from a specific source.

revolution, uprising, radical change.

Source:

a) information on the author(s) (first the surname, then the names/initials)

b) the title of the book in quotation marks

c) the publisher and date of publication

d) the page number(s) so that you can find the information again easily.

The above is information that is required by the historian, and therefore it is compulsory. The different departments in one university sometimes differ about what they regard as the correct manner of recording information about sources, e.g. some require full stops between the author, title and publisher, while others do not. Ensure that your project is as correct as possible, as authoritative sources prove the validity of your opinion.

Example:Hanks, Patrick, Collins Dictionary of the English Language,William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979. p. 337. Read Source A below, taking note of the different social classes as well as the products involved in the conflict between Salga and Samwu.

SOURCE A

Die Burger, P. 10 Saturday 6 July 2002

Salga not interested in further negotiations on Samwu strikers’ wages

CAPE TOWN. – The South African Local Government Association (Salga) is not considering any further negotiations on wage increases for members of the muni

cipal union (Samwu).

In letters between the president of Salga, Mr. Petrus Mashishi, and Samwu, as well as between the trade union Cosatu and Sal

ga, the hope was expressed, however, that further negotiations in this regard could be entered into. This was said yester

day after

noon by Adv. Etienne Vermaak, one of Salga’s main negotiators on the issue.

“We stick to the offer of 8% and the minimum wage of R1 900 per month. This is not because Salga is insensitive to the difficult living circumstances of some municipal workers, but because we cannot place a heavier burden on the rest of our taxpayers… to meet Samwu’s require

ments. The strike might still last a while, but we believe that it will lose momentum next week. In essence it is a power struggle.”

On the instructions of the minister of labour, Mr. Membathisi Mdladlana, the Commission for Mediation, Reconciliation and Arbitration tried to convene a meeting between the striking municipal workers and their employer yesterday.

Samwu said in a statement yesterday that it does not approve of littering, damage to property or any violence. “It is a pity that Salga and certain local structures concen

trate on this, rather than on the issues that gave rise to this behaviour.”

Ms. Anna Weekes, the media spokes

person for Samwu, said the union repeats its demands and that it will not give in. “We also appeal to local managements not to replace our workers with private service providers. This action causes even more tension.”

Matters proceeded in a reasonably order

ly manner in Cape Town yesterday, with a total of 2 314 workers – or about 8% of the total workforce – staying away from work.

“There was no serious disruption of municipal services,” said Mr. Charles Cooper, the media spokesperson for the city.

According to Mr. Mike Marsden, execu

tive director of commercial services, more workers turned up for work yesterday and the municipality attempted to catch up with the overdue provision of services. He said that emergency services will continue, as they did over the weekend.

SOURCE A : Assessment of knowledge and understanding

  • Complete the following sentences by providing the missing words.

1. (a) Salga represents the_______________ class. /1/

(b) Samwu represents the working class; according to the source they work for the ________________ /1/

(c) The conflict deals with “wage increases”, which means that the___________

want more __________/2/

(d) The work (labour) of municipal workers is to, e.g. _________________/1/

(e) Salga is dissatisfied because the Samwu strikers are guilty of:

littering” , “damage to property” and “violence”.

Explain these concepts without using the words used in the source!!

Littering is when _______________________/1/

‘An example of damage to property during a march is when

__________________________________/2/

Violence can break out when the police _________/2/

[LO 3.1, 3.6]

Note2:

You have now read a description of a modern conflict situation. Today people try to bring about change in a peaceful manner. While you collect information on the French Revolution, you must evaluate the TYPE of sources that you obtain. Visit the town library if your school does not have a library. Educators usually also have a collection of books. If you do not ask, you will not know.

Step 1: Look at the table of contents, the main headings and the pictures in the book. You are now looking for an aspect/part of the French Revolution that interests you. Look at the questions that follow and mark those in which you are interested. Write down your own ideas.

(a) Why did the nobility not realise in time that the conflict was coming?

(b) Why did the working class struggle to organise itself into an effective resistance movement?

(c) Would better communication (e.g. telephones) have made a difference?

(d) Are the reasons for the uprising still valid today?

(e) How do our Human Rights (see Source C) compare with the rights that normal people had in France at that time?

(f) What role did women play in the Revolution?

(g) What role did children play in the Revolution?

(h) Why was there so much bloodshed? OR

(i) Did poverty cause the uprisings?

(j) What part did the writings of the time (propaganda) play in the incitement of the masses?

(k) What was the influence of the French Revolution on other parts of the world, e.g. South Africa?

(l) What influence did the reaction of neighbouring countries to the violence during the revolution have on the French Revolution?

(m) Do you think that Napoleon Bonaparte was a hero?

(n) Do you think that the guillotine was a suitable apparatus for carrying out the sentence on those sentenced to death?

Step 2: The above questions will help you when you gather information for your project. Make notes on the information, keep careful records of your sources and use these for your project!

[LO 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5]

Assessment

Table 1
Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Historical EnquiryThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];
1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];
1.3 interprets graphical and statistical sources [works with sources];
1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];
1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].

Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 2

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

Assessment standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];

2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];

2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity].

LO 3

Historical Interpretation

The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 examines historical interpretation by asking relevant questions about the author of an historical source [source interpretation];

3.2 identifies and gives reasons for the different ways that the past is represented and interpreted [source interpretation];

3.3 explains why history is not objective or neutral [source interpretation];

Memorandum

Source A: The summary test out of 10: MEMO

1(a) ruling /1/ 1(b) municipality /1/ (c) labourers/workers/cleaners

1(c) money/salary /2/ 1(d) sweep the streets /remove garbage bags / any /1/

1(e) littering: throwing garbage around /1 damage to property: damaging property / breaking windows / climbing onto the roof of a car / any 2/ violence: strikers who attack /1/ the police / each other / bystanders /1/ Total. /10/

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