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    This module is included inLens: Siyavula: Social Sciences (Gr. 7-9)
    By: SiyavulaAs a part of collection: "History Grade 8"

    Collection Review Status: In Review

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The Industrial Revolution

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

Social Sciences

HISTORY

Grade 8

LAND AND POWER

Module 4

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

SOURCE A

In 1733, Mr. John Kay of Britain improved the loom used for weaving to such an extent that the demand for spinning thread increased drastically. From the business world it is clear that the greater the demand for a specific product (e.g. spinning thread), the better the price that can be obtained by the manufacturer (e.g. the spinner) for his product.

James Hargreaves was a woodworker and spinner from Lancashire in Britain. One day, his daughter, Jenny, knocked over the spinning wheel in the overcrowded house in which he, his wife and their seven children operated their cottage industry.

James realised that more spindles could be mounted on the axle and that more threads could therefore be spun at the same time. Hargreaves names his new invention the Spinning Jenny.

One Spinning Jenny, which had eight spindles, could do the work of eight people at the same time. Spinners who feared job

lessness broke into Hargreaves’s house and destroyed the Spin

ning Jenny. Hargreaves moved to Nottingham and opened a factory with larger and better spinning machines. His success with the Spinning Jenny motivated other inventors to also begin experimentation. In this way, a number of new and improved machines were developed.

The next step was the development of machines that could be operated with water power and steam power.

Written exercise:

  • Complete the following sentences on Source A.

The development of the Spinning Jenny was caused by an accident, namely that

_________________________________________________________________/2/

The consequence of the accident was that Hargreaves got the bright idea to

________________________________________________________________/2/

The cause / reason for the development of the improved spinning wheel was________________________________________________________/2/

The consequence / result of the improved spinning wheel was__________________/2/

/8/

[LO 2.2]

SOURCE B

The use of machines increased production, necessitating good roads for fast transport from the farm (e.g. fresh vegetables or wheat for bread) or factory (e.g. clothes) to the market.

John Loudon McAdam is still respected as a master road builder today. It is thanks to him that a network of excellent roads was built in Scotland and Britain.

Activity: Chronology

All the following facts on McAdam are correct, but they are not in the correct sequence. Read through the points and rearrange the facts so that they follow on one another logically.

1. He returned to Scotland at the age of 27.

2. When John was 14, his father died and he went to live with his uncle in New York.

3. McAdam was born in Scotland in 1756.

4. When John was a child, he enjoyed making roads for his toy carriages.

5. Even after his death, his techniques for building roads remained available in the three books that he wrote on the topic.

6. In New York, McAdam eventually became a wealthy merchant.

7. Back in Scotland, McAdam began to experiment with road building on his own estate in Ayrshire.

8. After he had depleted his own funds, John approached the government for financial aid to build a network of roads across Britain and Scotland.

  • Write down ONLY the numbers so that the facts of John’s life are in the correct order.
  • [LO 1.3]

WORK PAGE: HOME INDUSTRIES

COMPLETE the following work page by getting help from an adult at home.Ask the person to sign their name at the bottom of the work page.

In 1733, a home or cottage industry was a small business undertaking in which all the members of the family were involved. When we speak about a home industry today, we mean any group of people who market and sell products they have made themselves from a stall alongside the road, or from a shop in the town or city, or from their home or garage.

Examples of home industries are: garden services,_______________________

Granny had to look after the younger children so that Mother could finish her housework.

Today __________________________________________

Father used to do all the manual labour, today ______________________________

Children had to help on the farm during the day and with the cottage industry at night.

Today___________________________________________

The whole family spent all day together; today ______________________________

People lived far away from each other and transport was a problem; today_____________

If people could not produce certain products themselves, they exchanged products with other people.

Today ___________________________________

Everyone knew everyone else in the area, because they were dependent each other.

Today________________________________________

Lighting was obtained from candles and oil lamps and heating came from fire.

Today____________________________________________

Without electricity, communication was a problem. Today____________________________

Signed by: _______________________________

[LO 1.4, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1]

Activity: Carry out the instructions precisely [LO 1.5]

  • What follows is a description of McAdam’s road-building method. You must represent it graphically, in other words, by means of a clear drawing WITH CAPTIONS so that anyone will be able to follow your instructions.

John McAdam’s road-building method:

The bottom layer, called the foundation, consisted of large stones.

Onto this layer, the workers threw a second layer of medium-sized stones.

This was followed by a layer of smaller stones, after which the top layer of gravel, sand and lime was rolled flat so that it formed a smooth, even surface.

Title.______________________________________

/10/

SOURCE C

Educator: Grade Eights, it should be clear to you by now that during the Industrial Revolution tremendous social changes took place. The rich became richer and the poor even poorer. The labourers only had their labour to sell, and the employer could decide how much he wanted to pay. Child labour, especially, was exploited.

Parents who were poor, sold their children in order to get money to pay for food for their younger children.

Those of you who saw the movie Mary Poppins, will know of the circumstances in which chimney-sweeps lived. A lack of food, illness due to the coal dust they inhaled, inadequate treatment made the life of these children miserable.

SOURCE D

Sipho: I want to tell the history class how I collected money for my school fees. I started with cheap dishwashing fluid, old rags and bottles of water. I stood next to the off-ramp of the busy national road with a poster advertising my windscreen-wash service. My first client told me to keep the change. Another lady driving a spotless car, said that she enjoyed my friendliness. My undertaking expanded into a regular car-wash service for satisfied customers.

A squatter is a person who settles somewhere without the necessary amenities.

Mrs. Makhosana says that she offers the necessary amenities to her children: a roof over their heads, sufficient food and clothing, free medical treatment and day-to-day care and she pays their schooling. In exchange for that they respect her house rules and everyone makes a compulsory contribution to the household. Her children are a perfect example of their family, and she is proud of them.

SOURCE E

Martin: During the holidays, I worked as a volunteer at the Animal Welfare Society. The clients that I had while I was there consisted of nine dogs, various birds and cats. I walk the dogs and feed the birds and cats every day. I am willing to clean the birdcages for extra money.

Assignment

Table 1
Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Historical EnquiryThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];
1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];
1.3 interprets graphical and statistical sources [works with sources];
1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];
1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].

Table 2
Learning outcomes (LOs)
LO 2
Historical Knowledge and UnderstandingThe learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];
2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];
2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity].
LO 3
Historical InterpretationThe learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 examines historical interpretation by asking relevant questions about the author of an historical source [source interpretation];
3.2 identifies and gives reasons for the different ways that the past is represented and interpreted [source interpretation];
3.3 explains why history is not objective or neutral [source interpretation];

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A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

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What are tags? tag icon

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