Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to collection information

OpenStax_CNX

You are here: Home » Content » History Grade 8 » Causes of the first world war

Navigation

Lenses

What is a lens?

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

This content is ...

In these lenses

  • GETSenPhaseSS display tagshide tags

    This collection is included inLens: Siyavula: Social Sciences (Gr. 7-9)
    By: Siyavula

    Collection Review Status: In Review

    Click the "GETSenPhaseSS" link to see all content selected in this lens.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

Recently Viewed

This feature requires Javascript to be enabled.

Tags

(What is a tag?)

These tags come from the endorsement, affiliation, and other lenses that include this content.
 

Causes of the first world war

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

Social Sciences

HISTORY

Grade 8

CHANGING IDEAS AND TECHNOLOGY:

THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Module 11

THE CAUSES OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Activity 1:

To discuss territorial expansion and power as a cause of the First World War

[LO 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2.2]

READING 1

In 1877 the Russian Tsar, Alexander II, declared war on Turkey. After a year of heavy fighting, the Turks were beaten. According to the peace treaty of 1878, the Treaty of San Stefano, the new state of Bulgaria was created. It incorporated the majority of the Balkan states.

The High Chancellor of Germany, Bismarck, was a peacekeeper who worked tirelessly to create peace treaties between world powers. His Dreikaiserbund (treaty between three kaisers) between Germany (Wilhelm I), Austria-Hungary (Franz Josef) and Russia (Alexander II) of 1872 was in danger because Austria-Hungary was upset about the power Russia gained in the Balkans after the Treaty of San Stefano. These countries still followed an autocratic system of government, like the Turks. Note that the Russians were ruled by a tsar and the Turks by a sultan.

Bismarck requested that the super powers come to Berlin to make their claims to the Balkans, hoping that a peaceful solution could be found. Germany itself was not involved in the Balkans and could thus preside as arbitator. At the Congress of Berlin it was decided that Bulgaria would be recognized as a smaller, independent state. Bulgaria would pay tax to the Sultan of Turkey. Two of its former provinces, Bosnia and Herzegovina, were now ruled by Austria-Hungary. Bessarabia was given to Russia to appease it.

The British Prime Minister, Disraeli, referred to the results of the Berlin Congress as “freedom with honour”, but this freedom did not last long. Although Austro-Hungarian power was firmly

established in the Balkans by this treaty, it also led to resistance by Serbian Nationalists. The Russians were also upset, as their territorial expansion had been halted.

As a political force, Nationalism not only hastened the First World War, but also caused the autocratic governments of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Russia to crumble.

SOURCE A Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English - A S Hornby

tax : sum of money to be paid by citizens (according to income, value of purchases, etc.) to the government for public purposes

civic duties : official life and public affairs of a town or citizen for the (good) benefit of the country

  • Complete :

1. We call Source A a __________ source. /1/

2. I can motivate my answer to question 1: ___________________ /2/

3. Examples of service to ones country are _______________________/2/

4. My parent/guardian’s opinion concerning tax is that it is: essential / unnecessary,

because /2/

5. I think the Bulgarians refused to pay tax to the _____________________________/1/

Because __________________________________________/2/

/10/

  • QUESTIONS:

1. For what REASON did Bismarck try so hard to organize the Congress of Berlin? /2/

2. The POSITIVE RESULTS that were initially (at the beginning) achieved by the Congress of Berlin, were ____________________________________________________ /2/

3. Which NEGATIVE RESULTS were noticed after the Congress of Berlin? /2/

4. a) Which other person mentioned in Reading 1 was, like Bismarck, not the ruler of his country, and

b) What important position did this person occupy in the government of his country?

a) __________________________________________

b) __________________________________________/2/

5. Read through the following statement and decide whether the part printed in italics is a cause or an effect

Statement: Problems started for the Germans when Bismarck was dismissed by the German leader, Wilhelm II, in 1890.

Answer: ______________________________

Motivation: ____________________________ /2/

/10/

[LO 2.3]

Activity 2:

To discuss the clashing interests in the colonies as the second cause for the First World War

[LO 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 2.1]

READING 2

Germany entered the race for territory in Africa at a late stage. Wilhelm II saw an opportunity to expand his power in North Africa through Morocco. Morocco had rich iron ore deposits, an asset to any industrialized country.

France already had control of Algeria, Tunisia, West and Central Sudan and French-Somaliland next to the Red Sea. But France desperately needed iron ore, since Germany had gained their largest supply of iron ore when it annexed Alsace and Lorraine during the French-Prussian War of 1871. On top of that, France still owed Germany war debt. France and Germany had been enemies since 1871.

Britain could not allow France to annex Morocco, since that would threaten the important strategic British naval base at Gibraltar. Germany was building up its fleet. This posed a threat to Britain, the dominant power at sea, who needed a large fleet to protect its outlying colonies. Germany was a common threat to France and Britain in 1904, therefore they formed the Entente Cordiale.

In this agreement, Britain and France put aside their conflicting interests in Africa. France recognized Britain’s interests in Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, while Britain secretly recognized France’s interests in Morocco. Publicly Britain still guaranteed Morocco’s independence.

When France’s interests in Morocco became public, Wilhelm II of Germany visited Morocco and promised the Sultan that Germany would protect Morocco against France. A conference was held in Algeciras in 1906 during which Morocco’s independence and Germany’s economic interests in Morocco were guaranteed. During this conference, France received the support of Britain and its ally, Russia.

Britain was firmly set against the undemocratic Russian government and its autocratic Tsar.

Russia lost the Russo-Japanese war in 1905 and the Tsar was forced to institute the Duma, a form of parliamentary government. Talks between Russia and Britain now became possible. British interests in Persia and Russian interests in Afghanistan were recognized. Furthermore,

the Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907 led to the forming of a new Entente between France, Britain and Russia. The Entente was not a military treaty, but a friendly understanding in the interests of peace in Europe.

Thus, by the end of 1907, Europe was divided into two armed camps: The Entente, containing France, Britain and Russia opposed by the alliance of Germany, Austrio-Hungary and Italy.

DO YOU STILL KNOW THE FOLLOWING ?

independence : The right of a person or group to make their own decisions and to act in their own best interests

democracy: Government for the people through representatives that have been elected (by voting) freely

Originally the objective of the concept “democracy” was the protection of minorities. Democracy is sometimes summarised in the expression “one man, one vote”.

autocrat: Person who requires matters to be done without considering the wishes of others

Assignment:

[LO 2.1]

  • Now draw a TIME LINE and write down the following dates. Next to each date, write down an important historical event of that year.
  • 1871, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907
  • /10/

Assignment:

[LO 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5]

  • Consult a map of Africa in 1918 (at the end of the First World War). Study the map carefully and then answer the questions that follow.
  • MAP QUESTIONS:

1. Which European language do you think, the people of Algeria spoke? Why? /2/

2. Which European religion was mostly followed in Libya? Why? /2/

3. The ruler of the formerly independent Abyssinia declared in 1936, after Italy occupied his country, that his people of 12 million must depend on others’ sense of fair play and therefore he asked for the help of the super powers and the League of Nations. Abyssinia had neither weapons or natural resources.

3.1 Name any ADVANTAGE or BENEFIT of having an independent state. /2/

3.2 Name any DISADVANTAGE of having an independent state. /2/

4. Of what use is a map as a source to the historian? /2/

/10/

Activity 3:

To discuss the arms race as the third cause of the First World War

[LO 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.3]

READING 3

During the ten years between 1905 and 1914 the Super Powers spent vast amounts on armaments. Germany saw the Entente between France, Britain and Russia as an attempt to surround the country. Thus German improved and expanded its military power on ground scale.

The British forces were under the command of the experienced Lord Haldane who organized them so they would be ready to meet any threat. Belgium also responded to the German threat by lengthening its conscription time (period of military training). Russia increased the number of weapon factories and developed new strategies for warfare.

Weapons technology progressed immensely. For example, in 1906 Britain built a battleship, the dreadnought, which was heavily armoured and equipped with heavy cannons. The Germans developed a new type of warfare at sea by using submarines. Despite disarmament conferences, distrust and hostility between the Super Powers increased and war became inevitable.

Assignment:

  • Now look at all the words in bold in Reading 3. In Reading 4 there is further information on WEAPONS, TECHNOLOGY and STRATEGY. When doing this, go a step further and discuss the changes or similarities in weapons over time. Pay thorough attention to IMPROVEMENTS, in weapons.

SOURCE INFORMATION:

  • You can find more information at the following web sites:

1. www.askjeeves.com (Type in the question.)

2. www.google.com (Type in the key word.)

3. www.mweb.co.za (Go to the library.)

PICTURES:

Reader's Digest Illustrated Story of WORLD WAR I, Cape Town, 1969

Visit your nearest library. Ask a librarian to show you where reference books on the First World War are kept.

  • You have now evaluated and selected sources.
  • Write your own research that you did with the help of the information on WEAPONS.

If you were unsuccessful in finding or selecting information you may use the story of a veteran fighter (correctly documented and dated) as proof of your research.

  • The following assignment must be assessed by class members.

WEAPONS

Assignment:[LO 1.4, 1.5]

  • Use your information and write down your ideas here. Try to communicate your results as clearly as possible.

1. Why do you think, normal people use weapons?

2. Should there be a restriction on the (a) number of and (b) type of weapons in a country? MOTIVATE your answers!

3. Why does weapons technology advance during war time?

  • Remember that everybody has different interests, so you should read the information gathered by your class members.

Memorandum

Activity 1:

SOURCE A: 1. secondary (1)

2. combined (1) from primary sources (1)

3. electricity/water/roads/etc. any two (2)

4. Any essential services OR excess money / unnecessary services (2) 5. Sultan of Turkey (1) the money was not spent to their benefit OR Turkey took the money. Any answer. /2/ =10

Activity 2: Facts for the TIME LINE

1871 End of the Franco-Prussian war that humiliated France.

1904 France and Britain enter into the Entente Cordiale.

1905 Japan wins the war against Russia, the Duma established.

1906 Conference in Algeciras at which Morocco is discussed.

1907 Triple Entente entered into between France, Britain and Russia.

MAP QUESTIONS:

1. French, because the army of occupation was French. (2)

2. Roman Catholic Denomination. The Italian missionaries believed this. (2)

3.1 Any: rules itself OR establishes its own laws OR People enjoy freedom. (2)

3.2 Disadvantage Any: Without resources it is on its own OR Must have powerful weapons because of being responsible for its own defence. (2)

4. Any: The historian is able to trace the exact borders OR research land

ownership. (2)

=10

Assessment

Learning outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Historical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present

Assessment standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];

1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable?”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];

1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].

LO 2

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding

We know this when the learner:

2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];

2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];

2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity]

Collection Navigation

Content actions

Download:

Collection as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Module as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Add:

Collection to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks

Module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks