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Writing history essays

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

Social Sciences

HISTORY

Grade 9

HUMAN RIGHTS DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR

Module 3

Practice in the writing of history essays

LEARNING ACTIVITY:

Practice in the writing of history essays below and write an essay (one A4 page) explaining how Germans were able to recognize Jews. Also give your opinion of the methods of race classification that were used.

SOURCEJakob Graf: Hereditary and Racial Biology for Students (1935)

How can we get to know how to be aware of a person’s race?

... 6. Collect propaganda posters and cartoons for your book on race and arrange these according to race. What is the image of beauty that the artist accentuates in: (a) posters that introduce sports and travel (b) how hunters, mountaineers and shepherds are presented?

7. Make a collection of images from illustrated magazines and newspapers, etc., of great scholars, statesmen, artists and other people who have become particularly distinguished (e.g., in economic life, politics, sport). Determine the dominant race and combination according to physical characteristics. Repeat the exercise using images of great men from all nations and at all times.

... 10. Take note of Jews; their manner of walking, posture, gestures and movements while talking.

11. What do you notice when a Jew talks or sings?

SOURCEFrom a Nazi school textbook The poisenous mushroom

Little Karl took the pointer, walked over to the writing board and pointed to the sketch. “A Jew is usually recognizable by his nose. The Jews’ noses are crooked at the end. Many non-Jews also have crooked noses, but their noses are bent, not at the end, but higher up. Such a nose is called a hooked nose … This has nothing to do with a Jewish nose… The Jew can also be recognized by his lips. They usually are thick. Frequently the lower lip protrudes… Jews are also recognizable by their

eyes. Their eyelids usually are thicker and more fleshy than ours. A Jew looks sly and sharp."

SOURCE

Johannes Stark, with reference to the Jews. He received the Nobel prize for his work in the field of electromagnetism in 1934. He asked his German co-recipients of the Nobel prize to sign a declaration pledging support to Adolf Hitler. He had this to say about the Jews:

...It is true that the Jewish psyche, because of the flexibility of its intellect, has the capacity, by imitating the German example, to make important contributions, but it is not capable of doing creative work in the natural sciences. In recent times, Jews have frequently referred to Heinrich Hertz to counter this argument. It is true that Heinrich Hertz has made important discoveries in the field of electromagnetic waves, but he is not a true-blooded Jew. He has a German mother...

SOURCEH Gauch: New Foundations of Racial Science (1934)

Nordic people do not talk much… People from other races talk a lot and what they have to say is superficial, without good judgment and untrue...

Nordic people keep their mouths closed when they chew their food, and use a grinding action of the jaws, while other races usually chew with smacking sounds, like animals, because of how they move their jaws, and the repeated opening and closing of their mouths.

The physical shape of Nordic women is especially beautiful, while it is not so in other races. Their menfolk are more handsome, just as in the animal world .

The Nordic people have a natural feeling for inner and outer cleanliness, while non-Nordic people always live in dirty environments when they live among their own people. Many animals are cleaner than they are when it comes to cleanliness.

Racial mixing … causes and leads to disease. It is an infringement of the laws of heaven, a crime against the future generation, manslaughter and murder .

Non-Nordic people are approximately equal to animals and relate closely with them .

The Nordic person therefore is the creator of all culture and civilization. The salvation and preservation of the Nordic person alone will save and preserve culture and civilization .

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