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    This module is included inLens: Siyavula: Social Sciences (Gr. 4-6)
    By: SiyavulaAs a part of collection: "History Grade 6"

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'Darkest Africa' lures many adventurers

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

SOCIAL SCIENCES: History

Grade 6

EXPLORATION IN AFRICA

Module 10

‘DARKEST AFRICA’ LURES MANY ADVENTURERS AND RISK THEIR LIVES

Activity:

To study the sources that are provided and report on what you have learnt

[LO 1.1, 1.2, 1.3]

Use the following ten sources (or obtain more sources) that will enable you to do the activity.

SOURCE A - Discovering the world in sequence

  • Europe and the British Isles
  • North America
  • China
  • America
  • Australia
  • The African Interior
  • North and South Poles

SOURCE B - Discovering Africa

Figure 1
Figure 1 (graphics1.png)
Table 1
1 Explorers B.C
2 South Africans
3 Mungo Park
4 The Lander brothers
5 Burton, Speke, Grant, Baker
6 Livingstone
7 Stanley

SOURCE C - Discoveries in Africa

Table 2
Explorer Date(s) Places visited
1. Park 1805 – 6 Gambia River and Niger River
2. Campbell 1813 Orange River
3. Moffat 1820 Griekwastad and Kuruman
4. Caillil 1827 – 8 Timbuktu
5. The Lander brothers 1830 Niger River
6. Galton and Andersson 1850 – 2 Walvis Bay, Namaqualand, Rehoboth, Damaraland and Ovamboland
7. Burton en Speke 1857 – 8 Lake Tanganyika
8. Speke 1858 Lake Victoria
9. Rohlfs 1879 – 9 Nile River
10. Thomson 1879 – 80 Lake Malawi
11. Thomson 1883 – 4 Kilimanjaro
12. Stanley 1887 – 9 Zanzibar
13. Forreau 1898 – 1900 Congo River

SOURCE D - Exploration of Southern Africa

Table 3
600 v.C. Farão II
1485 Diogo Cão seafarers sent to Africa
1488 Dias
1497 Da Gama
1652 Jan van Riebeeck

SOURCE E - Francois le Vaillant (1753 – 1784)

Figure 2
Figure 2 (Picture 1.png)

He visited Mossel Bay, Plettenberg Bay, Namaqualand, Damaraland, Bechuanaland and the Kalahari

SOURCE F - Thunberg(1771– 1779)

Figure 3
Figure 3 (Picture 2.png)

He visited the following places: The Berg River, Knysna, the Gamtoos River, Saldanha, St Helena Bay, the Hex River Mountains, Swellendam, the Krom River, the Sundays River.

SOURCE G – Mungo Park (1805 – 1806)

Figure 4
Figure 4 (graphics2.png)

People were first attracted to Africa because of what they had heard about the fabulous riches of Timbuktu, and also to find the source of the River Niger. In 1794 Mungo Park (from Scotland) was selected to clarify these secrets. His journey started off well, but he was robbed and thrown into prison by some local rulers. After he had managed to escape, he did find the source of the Niger. His recorded his experiences in the book: Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa. His second expedition was started in 1805 but ended in a tragedy when he and his men drowned after being attacked by soldiers. The attempt to find the source of the River Niger continued without success until 1830.

SOURCE H – René Caillié (1827 – 1828)

The Frenchman René Caillié took up an offer of a reward of 10 000 francs for finding Timbuktu. He was successful and arrived at this city in April 1828, but found that it had become impoverished because traders had stopped visiting the city with their caravans of camels. René did receive his reward, though.

SOURCE I: –1740 – 1838

Six people died in the search for the source of the Niger River:

  • D. Hughton
  • M. Park
  • F. Hornemann
  • J. Ritchie
  • W. Oudney
  • H. Clapperton

SOURCE J – BURTON, GRANT AND SPEKE

The river Nile has been an important source of life for the millions of people who have lived along its course. but the source of this river from which they used water every day remained a mystery. Since the earliest times, though, people tried to find the river's source, but their attempts came to nothing because of the great length of the river, the extreme heat and fever that overcame explorers. Ptolemaeus's map of the mountains of the moon, however, kept enticing adventurers to go in search of the source.

In 1856 Richard Burton, a man who could speak 29 languages, and John Speke were sent to find the source of the Nile. Both these adventurers contracted malaria, which left Burton's legs paralysed and left Speke both deaf and blind. Fortunately both recovered and they were able to continue their journey. They arrived at Ujiji (Lake Tanganyika) in 1858 and were convinced that they had found one of the lakes on the map of Ptolemaeus. However soon realised that they had not yet reached the source of the Nile.

Speke went on to search for Lake Nyasa, a lake of which people in Europe had heard much, but no one had ever seen. He thought he had discovered the source of the Nile, but had not done enough research to prove his theory. He named the lake that he had discovered Lake Victoria, after the British Queen. When Speke told Burton about his discoveries, Burton doubted whether Speke was right and ill feeling developed between them.

Speke and James Grant then continued their explorations and became the first Europeans to be allowed to enter Uganda in 1862. In that year Speke reached the banks of a river that flowed out of Lake Victoria, but he, again, could not gather enough evidence to prove that this river was the Nile.

Burton was not satisfied with what Speke had told him and made arrangements for a meeting in England, in 1864, for Speke to provide the necessary evidence for his assertion that he had discovered the source of the Nile. Speke was killed in a shooting accident a day before the planned meeting. Later it was proved that the source of the Nile is at Lake Victoria.

Figure 5
Figure 5 (graphics3.png)

a) Explain why Africa was known as the Dark Continent.

b) It is important to know that discoveries occurred in different parts of Africa. Mark the course of the journeys of discovery on a map. Show the routes with dots. This will make it possible to have a better idea of where in Africa people gathered information and if they were helping local people. Draw your own map.

Group work!

c) By the beginning of the 1800s interest in Africa was rekindled. Why did this happen?

Group work!

d) Your group must discuss the above-mentioned "discoverers" to decide which one should be commemorated by means of a monument. Design such a monument – with an inscription explaining why this particular person deserved to have a monument erected to him.

e) The new wave of explorers not only brought information about Africa to Europe, but also introduced local people to Western civilisation. Read the following report on the search for the source of the Nile and indicate the kind of information that became available:

  • to local people (people living in Africa).
  • about local people.

Brainstorming!

f) The illustration shows the monument that was erected in Kensington Gardens, London, to honour Speke.

  • Why was it erected in London?
  • Why would you say that Speke deserved it? What about Burton or Grant?
  • What would have happened if Burton and Speke did not travel to Africa?

Assessment

Table 4
Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
HISTORICAL ENQUIRYThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 finds sources:
  • identifies sources to help answer the question about the topic;
1.2 works with sources:
  • selects and records relevant information for specific purposes from a variety of sources (e.g. oral, written and visual sources, including maps, graphs and tables, objects, buildings, monuments, museums);
1.3 answers the question:
  • arranges information logically and chronologically in answering questions about people, events, objects, and places in the past.

Memorandum

Activity

(a) There were many things about Africa that had not yet been cleared (light shed upon), eg. origins of the big rivers, secret cities, etc.

Large parts of Africa had not yet been converted to Christianity. (Christians considered Christ to be the light of the world.)

(b) In the nineteenth century Europeans were very interested in the discovery of distant places, in the same way we are interested in discoveries in space today.

Because there was no radio or TV to inform the people, they regularly read about it in newspapers, magazines and books. The resulting publicity excited people tremendously about explorers.

(f) Famous British explorers – made known the source of the Nile to the world. In fact, Burton and Speke made the discovery together. Burton spread the news before before Burton returned to England. (Buton became ill at Lake Tanganyika.)

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