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Classififying western music

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

ARTS AND CULTURE

Grade 7

CRITICAL AND CREATIVE REFLECTION

Module 11

CLASSIFY WESTERN MUSIC

Activity 1:

To classify Western music

[LO 2.6]

  • What do you know about Western music instruments?

STEP 1

Divide into four groups and discuss possible answers before writing down your answers. (Have a brainstorming session)

STEP 2

Which instruments form part of a symphonic orchestra? Write down those which you can recall with their characteristics.

STEP 3

Write down a few of the characteristics of these instruments with regard to their:

  • shape;
  • function;
  • the way in which the sound is produced.

STEP 4

List the instruments which have the same characteristics.

STEP 5

The educator will explain the different instrument groups/families to you. LISTEN carefully!

STEP 6

Classify the instruments which you copied (also those which your educator told you about) according to the four groups (families). Is there any similarity to STEP 4?

Table 1
Strings Woodwind Brass Percussion
       

STEP 7

Each group researches one instrument group (strings, woodwinds, brass or percussion). This information must then be shared with the rest of the class.

STEP 8

Each learner in the group must now do individual research on one of the instruments from the instrument group which they researched in their group.

Use books, magazines, software like ENCARTA and the Internet!

(Each group represents a specific family. The final product is pasted or written in your learner journal.)

Your research must cover the following aspects:

  • Picture of the instrument
  • Name of the instrument
  • To which group it belongs (strings, etc.)
  • The shape of the instrument. What it is made of? (wood, brass)
  • The position of the body when playing the instrument (sitting, standing)
  • Classified according to pitch (high or low)
  • How the sound is produced? (air column, string, etc.)
  • Description of the sound (warm, dark, low, shrill, etc.)
  • Function of the instrument (melody, mainly for accompaniment)

STEP 9

Classify the instruments according to vocal parts of a choir: soprano, alto, tenor and bass

Table 2
Vocal Parts Strings Woodwind Brass
Soprano
     
     
Alto
     
     
Tenor
     
     
Bass
     
     

Activity 2:

To classify African instruments

[LO 2.6]

  • The rest of the world is very impressed with the sounds of Africa, but what do you know about Africa and the instruments of Africa?

Figure 1
Figure 1 (Picture 20.jpg)

STEP 1

Provide the following information on the map:

a) Indicate, on the map, where you would find north, south, east and west.

b) The Sahara serves as the division between two music cultures. North of the Sahara the music is based on the style of the Middle East. The area south of the Sahara (Sub-Sahara) is African music!

Indicate, on the map, where you would find the Sahara desert.

c) Indicate where you would find the following 20 countries:

(Only a few countries out of each region have been selected):

(i) West Africa: Mali, Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Senegal.

(ii) Central Africa: Chad, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi.

(iii) East Africa: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

(iv) Southern Africa: South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi.

d) The instruments of Africa are predominantly determined by the geographical location of the regions of Africa. Which type of vegetation do you associate with each of the regions?

Identify the following regions and colour them according to the indicated colours:

- Tropical forests (green)

- Grasslands and scattered trees (purple)

- Savanna and shrubs (orange)

e) Complete the following by choosing the correct word:

Words from which to choose:

Table 3
calabash animal horns SouthernAfrica plants wood West-Africa East-Africa animals southern

As the instruments of Africa are made out of natural products of _____________ and

____________________, the fauna and flora of the region play an important role.

In the regions of ______________ where trees are abundant, instruments made of

__________________________ are more common than in the grasslands in the

__________________________ parts of Africa, where there are fewer trees.

In ____________________________ where cows play an integral part in the culture

________________ are used as instruments, whereas the culture of the Khoi-San of

________________ is based on the nomadic collection of food. Music bows, made of

_______________________, are thus more common.

  1. (i) What is used to make the following instruments?
  2. (ii) Choose an instrument which can be linked to the source.
  3. (iii) The instruments may appear more than once.
  4. (iv)
Table 4
xylophone shakers trumpets drums music bows whistles flutes
Table 5
Tree trunks  
Calabashes  
Reeds  
Animal skins  
Animal horns  
Bamboo  
Dried legumes and fruit  

STEP 2

Write down all the instruments which you associate with music from Africa.

STEP 3

Write down the characteristics of these instruments with regard to construction (shape, material, etc) and the production of the sound.

STEP 4

List the instruments which have similar characteristics.

STEP 5

The educator will explain the various music groups to you. LISTEN carefully!

STEP 6

Classify the instruments which you have listed (also those which you have heard about now) according to the four groups (families). Are there any similarites to STEP 4?

Define the following:

Ideophone

Chordophone

Membranophone

Aerophone

How are the above-mentioned instruments classified?

Activity 3:

To research specific African instruments

[LO 2.6]

  • In the previous two activities you have already gained a broad knowledge of the instruments of both the Western and African music cultures. Now, in this activity, we are going to concentrate on a few African instruments. Research ONE of the instruments: use the internet, ENCARTA, other soft ware, interview people and, most importantly, keep your eyes and ears open and think logically. All additional information can be pasted into your journal.

a) Complete the following on theMBIRA (Im BEE rah)

  • Classification of the Mbira (motivate)
  • Examples of ideophones
  • Examples of lamellaphones
  • Shape and material
  • How to play the mbira
  • What makes the sound
  • Type of sound
  • Pitch

b) Complete the following on the JEMBE (Djem-be - the “e” pronounced like in the word bed)

  • Classification of the jembe (motivate)
  • Examples of membranophones
  • Examples of drums
  • Shape and material
  • How to play the jembe
  • What makes the sound
  • Type of sound
  • Pitch

c) Complete the following on the UHADI (Oe HAA die)

  • Classification or the Uhadi (motivate)
  • Examples of chordaphones
  • Examples of musical bows
  • Shape and material
  • How to play the uhadi
  • What makes the sound
  • Type of sound
  • Pitch

Assessment

Table 6
Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 2
REFLECTINGThe learner will be able to reflect critically and creatively on artistic and cultural processes, products and styles in past and present contexts.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
MUSIC
classifies African instruments in terms of ideophones, chordophones, membranophones, aerophones, and Western instruments according to strings, woodwind, brass and percussion;
discusses any of the following types of instrument in terms of the shape, materials used, type of sound, how it is played, what makes the sound:
  • drums – made of wood, gourds or clay – to show the different membranes that are made of cow, goat or donkey hides;
  • percussion instruments – rattles, bells, clap sticks, slit gongs, mbira, xylophones, kalimba, likembe, lamallaphone;
  • stringed instruments – musical bows, lutes, lyres, harps, zithers, kora, xalam;
  • wind instruments – flutes made from bamboo, reeds, wood, clay and bones;
  • trumpets made of animal horns and wood;
  • clarinets from the Savannah region made of guineacorn or sorghum stems;
  • flugelhorn, saxophones and guitars.

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