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Adjectives and adverbs

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

ENGLISH HOME LANGUAGE

Grade 7

Module 12

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

IntroducingDESCRIBING WORDS

Let’s quickly refresh our memories!

A noun is a _____________________

List the four different types of nouns and give an example of each one:

A verb is a ____________and describes _____________________ .

Let’s continue with describing words:

Read the two extracts below. Which one is more interesting and say why:

Table 1
  The tramp sat staring at the sky, watching the clouds float past the sun shining overhead. Giving a cough, he picked up his jacket and staggered over to his bicycle.
  The dirty, old tramp sat staring sadly at the grey sky, watching the black clouds float quickly past the fading sun shining overhead. Giving a pathetic cough, he slowly picked up his ragged, faded jacket and staggered drunkenly over to his rusty and broken bicycle.

Yes, definitely number because

Let’s begin with ADJECTIVES:

Adjectives always describe the nouns, i.e. they give the reader more information about the noun and make what is being said or described more interesting.

  1. (a) Read extract number 2 again and highlight all the nouns.
  2. (b) Check with your partner that you have selected the correct words as nouns.
  3. (c) Now circle all the words used to describe the nouns.
Table 2
LO 6.2.1  

Group work

  1. (a) Select one of the nouns given below. Think up five suitable and interesting adjectives for the noun.
  2. (b) Write a short paragraph or sentence on a large, separate piece of paper, using your words to be displayed in the classroom.
Table 3
snake see bride pop star witch
athlete flower cake mom car
  1. Match the adjectives in the first column with a suitable noun from the second column. Be able to use each pair of words in a sentence.
Table 4
  comical fruit
  adjustable leather jacket
  delicious experience
  unforgettable ruins
  loving mask
  experienced operation
  expensive mother
  painful hotel
  luxurious seats
  ancient secretary

  1. Fill suitable adjectives into the spaces provided.
  1. (a) A/An___________ teacher once assured the__________________

discoverer of relativity, then aged ten, “Einstein, you will never amount to

much.”

  1. (a) His______________ teacher called him ‘addled’, his __________________

father dismissed him as a ___________________dunce’, and his

_________________________school headmaster wrote that he ‘would never

make a success of anything’. It was only after his ______________________

mother took him under her wings that Thomas Edison began to show signs

that he would one day ‘invent’ the modern world, patenting over a thousand

________________inventions including the ________________________

light bulb and the gramophone.

(Adapted from Don’t quote me, By D Atjeo and J Green)

Table 5
LO 6.2.1  

Find a magazine picture of an interesting or unusual face. Write a short piece (about 4 – 5 sentences) describing this face.

Table 6
LO 4.3  

(OPPOSITE – ADJECTIVES)

  1. Write down adjectives which are opposite in meaning to those in the given list:
Table 7
  grateful  
  fortunate  
  responsible  
  legal  
  intentional  
  experienced  
  friendly  
  effective  
  merciful  
  expensive  

Use one of these words in a good, clear sentence.

(FORMING – ADJECTIVES)

  1. Form adjectives from the nouns in brackets:
Table 8
  The (drama) actress fell off the stage.  
  The (irritation) father smacked his (intelligence) child.  
  The (fury) lion attacked the (wound) calf.  
  An (athlete) sprinter should have strong muscles.  
  A (hunger) child will eat just about anything.  
  The (fortune) gambler won a million rand.  
  The policeman arrested the (guilt) thief.  
  Steer clear of an (anger) man.  
  An unroadworthy car is said to be a (danger) vehicle.  
  Every parent loves (obedience) children.  
Table 9
LO 6.2.1  

DEGREES OF COMPARISON : ADJECTIVES

Table 10
Peter runs fast. Pietie runs faster. Pedro runs the fastest.
Adjectives normally take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative degrees of comparison. This is not always the case.
Adjectives which do not follow the rules:
good better best
little less least
much/many more most
bad worse worst
  1. What is the correct form of the adjective in each of these sentences:
Table 11
  That was the (long) trip I have ever taken.  
  John is (tall) than his brother, but (short) than his friends.  
  It is the (cold) month, but the (hot) day of the year.  
  June is the (clever), but also the (ugly) girl in the class.  
  Tom made the (little) mistakes in the test and won the prize.  
  Their behaviour is the (bad) I’ve ever seen.  
  Boston beat us because their team is the (good).  
  Yes, indeed, my joke is (funny) than yours.  
  Your dad is (fat) than mine, but your mom is the (thin) in the neighbourhood.  
  Anne is the (pretty) girl in the whole school.  
  1. Some adjectives need help from the words more and most. Complete the table:
Table 12
  interesting more interesting most interesting
  painful    
  beautiful    
  difficult    
  terrifying    
Table 13
LO 6.2.1  

Use more or most to complete the following:

  • He is _______________sensible than Alice, but ___________________

unreliable.

  • It was the ____________________ expensive gift I had ever received.
  • He is the ___________________unpleasant child I know, while you

are the ___________________ selfish.

  • The pattern cutter is ______________ skilful than her colleague.
  • Make up your own sentences using more and most.

ADVERBS!

Adjectives always tell you more about the verbs (action words). They can give more information about how (manner), when (time) and where (place).

Yesterday Peter ate the chocolate greedily.

(Yesterday tells us when he ate the chocolate; greedily tells us how he ate the chocolate).

He ate it here.

Here tells us where he ate the chocolate.

  1. Form adverbs (manner) by adding –ly to the following adjectives. Some of the spellings might change.
Table 14
  quiet       pleasant  
  easy       helpful  
  careful       polite  
  clever       ferocious  
  happy       timid  
  forceful       miserable  
  lazy       sad  

(Orally) Make sentences with at least five of the above-listed words.

  1. Shade the correct answer: The bold words in the following sentences are adverbs of:
Table 15
  Meet me there. time place manner
  He arrived at noon. time place manner
  We are going shopping tomorrow. time place manner
  Please make sure that you arrive early. time place manner
  I could not find them anywhere. time place manner
  He has never been there before. time place manner
Table 16
  He has never been there before. time place manner
  The burglar tiptoed quietly down the passage. time place manner
  He answered the questions politely. time place manner
  He ate his hamburger hungrily. time place manner

Complete each of the following sentences by filling each blank space with an adverb of the type mentioned in brackets: (T); (P); (M):

  • (T)__________ we did not leave (P)_______________________ until

after lunch.

  • Stop what you are doing and come here (T)_________________ .
  • (P)___________________ is where our house once stood.
  • The brave dog held on (M) ____________________to the man’s trousers.
    1. (a) The model dressed (M) __________________________for the show.
  • Match the verbs in the first column with a suitable adverb from the second column. Be able to use each pair of words in a sentence.
Table 17
  ate courageously
  fought clumsily
  searched eerily
  howled attentively
  answered fatally
  laughed hungrily
  shot happily
  purred frantically
  listened politely
  fell contentedly
Table 18
LO 6.2.1  

Assessment

Table 19
LO 4
WRITINGThe learner will be able to write different kinds of factual and imaginative texts for a wide range of purposes.
We know this when the learner:
4.1 writes a selected range of imaginative texts:
4.1.2 to explore the creative and playful use of language by means of narrative and descriptive compositions, diaries, friendly letters, dialogues, poems, cartoons, limericks and songs;
4.3 demonstrates basic skills in selected features of writing appropriate to the text type (e.g. uses straightforward language in simple descriptions);
4.4 uses the writing process with assistance and collaboratively to generate texts:
4.4.1 selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;
4.4.4 organises ideas coherently in simple, logical order to produce first drafts.
4.4.7 proofreads and corrects final draft by applying knowledge of language in context, focusing on grammar, punctuation, spelling and vocabulary appropriate for the grade;
LO 6
LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USEThe learner will know and be able to use the sounds, words and grammar of the language to create and interpret texts.
We know this when the learner:
6.1 works with words:
6.1.1 uses different strategies to spell unfamiliar words;
6.1.3 uses the dictionary and thesaurus to increase vocabulary and improve spelling;
6.1.6 identifies a range of prefixes and suffixes o work out meaning;
6.1.7 analyses how language borrow words form one another, and how new words are coined and uses these appropriately;
6.2 works with sentences:
6.2.1 identifies and uses nouns, verbs, modals, adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and articles.
6.4 develops awareness and use of style;
6.4.3 uses idioms and idiomatic expressions of the language appropriately;

Memorandum

Pg 27 - 37 : Describing words

A noun is a naming word.

  • Common Noun - dog ; hound
  • Proper Noun - Spot ; Waggles
  • Collective Noun - a horde of savages ; a pack of wolves
  • Abstract Noun - anger ; joy ; sadness

A verb is an action word and describes the ‘happening’ or the action.

The 2nd extract is more interesting, … it gives more detail ; tells you more …

Adjectives

3.

(a) comical mask

(b) adjustable seats

(c) delicious fruit

(d) unforgettable experience

(e) loving mother

(f) experienced secretary

(g) expensive leather jacket

(h) painful operation

(i) luxurious hotel

(j) ancient ruins

4. Any suitable adjectives will suffice. Just remember that the extract must make sense after the adjectives have been filled into the spaces provided.

6.

(a) ungrateful

(b) unfortunate

(c) irresponsible

(d) illegal

(e) unintentional

(f) inexperienced

(g) unfriendly

(h) ineffective

(i) unmerciful

(j) inexpensive

7.

(a) dramatic

(b) irritated

(c) furious ; wounded

(d) athletic

(e) hungry

(f) fortunate

(g) guilty

(h) angry

(i) dangerous

(j) obedient

8.

(a) longest

(b) taller ; shorter

(c) coldest ; hottest

(d) cleverest ; ugliest

(e) least

(f) worst

(g) best

(h) funnier

(i) fatter ; thinnest

(j) prettiest

9. Put the word more and most before the word

10.

(a) more sensible ; more / most unreliable (depending on the meaning or the point being made)

(b) most expensive

(c) most unpleasant ; most selfish

(d) more skilful

Adverbs

12.

(a) quietly ; pleasantly

(b) easily ; helpfully

(c) carefully ; politely

(d) cleverly ; ferociously

(e) happily ; timidly

(f) forcefully ; miserably

(g) lazily ; sadly

13.

(a) place

(b) time

(c) time

(d) time

(e) place

(f) manner

(g) place

(h) manner

(i) manner

(j) manner

14. Any answer would do as long as it answered the question

15.

(a) ate hungrily

(b) fought courageously

(c) searched frantically

(d) howled eerily

(e) answered politely

(f) laughed happily

(g) shot fatally

(h) purred contentedly

(i) listened attentively

(j) fell clumsily

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