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Direct and indirect speech

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

ENGLISH HOME LANGUAGE

Grade 6

Module 17

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

(The actual words a person says/speaks)

  • Study the examples below.

These examples demonstrate two ways of writing direct speech:

Figure 1
Figure 1 (Picture 2.png)

Figure 2
Figure 2 (Picture 3.png)

Many court cases involving young children collapse because the youngsters are unable to testify competently in the intimidating surroundings of a court set-up.

Even with the introduction of closed circuit cameras, which relay testimony from a room adjacent to the court, the thought of testifying to a courtroom filled with official-looking adults in black Batman-like garb is daunting to many minors.

At Cape Town’s Tygerberg Hospital, the TygerBear Social Work Unit for Traumatised Children aims to assist children in making the court experience less frightening, whether they’re witnesses or victims.

Here young children who have to testify in special courts for sexual offences involving minors and older ones who testify in open court are taught to view their participation in a trial as helpful to the judicial process.

In the colourful space, which is home to the unit, social workers use teddy bears, sketches, puppets and other tools to introduce the legal system to the children.

And through this play therapy children become more and more accustomed to what they at first considered a harrowing experience.

Social worker Judith Booysen said children often felt as if they were the guilty parties when questioned by lawyers.

“It is important for children to know that their evidence is part of the trial and whatever they say will not be the only factor deciding the outcome of the case. They are not responsible for the sentence handed down by the court.

“They’re easily frightened by official-looking adults who speak a language (legalese) they don’t understand.

“This, together with questions asked by the defence, can break down their testimony and they start answering incorrectly because they’re frightened.”

Children under 18 in need of such court preparation are referred to the unit by public prosecutors.

“We receive about 50 referrals for court preparation a month. Children are taught that court staff have a job to do and by testifying the children will help them with that job.

“We also empower them to speak up in court and to tell the facts as they know them,” Booysen said.

Social workers use sketches and puppetry to familiarise children with the inside of the court and where each official sits and what their roles are.

“This already makes the child feel more comfortable.”

She said that because social workers liased with the police and therefore knew the facts of each child’s case, they knew how to deal with each particular child.

“We don’t tell them what to say. We rather encourage them to tell the truth.

“Our programme is very successful and it has been proven that a child can’t go to court unprepared. It is intimidating enough for an adult to testify,” Booysen said.

The unit also runs a group court preparation programme.

The unit’s head, Manette de Jager, said: “We desperately need sponsorship to sustain the programme. Some of the children don’t have money for transport and we have to acquire new equipment all the time.”

1. Read through the text labelled ‘Teaching children to speak up in Court’ and write down 3 complete sentences in which direct speech, written in inverted commas, is used. Use colour to identify the speaker’s actual words.

2. Each example below contains direct speech. Fill in the missing punctuation marks (such as “ ” ; capital letters ; ! ? . ,):

  1. (i) Lenore states youngsters are unable to testify competently because they are frightened
  2. (ii) Children often feel guilty when they are intimidated said Judith
  3. (iii) Something must be done about it she added
  4. (iv) Judith replied When children are frightened they answer incorrectly.
  5. (v) We don’t tell them what to say she replied.
  6. (vi) We use pictures and puppets to familiarize the children with court procedure said Judith
  7. (vii) She stated now children go to court prepared

We desperately need sponsorship in order to be able to continue with this

  • What is the function of the speech bubble?
  • What is the difference between a speech bubble and words written in inverted commas?
  • What punctuation marks do we use in direct speech?

3. What is Judith saying to Lita? Complete the speech bubbles.

4. Rewrite these speech bubbles in direct speech.

Figure 3
Figure 3 (Picture 4.png)

Figure 4
Figure 4 (Picture 5.png)
Table 1
LO 4.1.1  

INDIRECT SPEECH

(retelling or reporting what someone else has said)

  • Judith Booysen said, “We use puppets and teddies to prepare the children to speak in court.”
  • Judith Booysen said thatthey used puppets and teddies to prepare the children to speak in court.

To simplify the process of converting direct to indirect speech, remember the following rules:

Table 2
  • Put the name first of the person who spoke
  • Use action words (following the name), such as said, told, replied, asked, …
that comes after the action word / or the words whether / if in the case of a question
  • Sometimes it makes more sense to change the sentence into past tense
  • Some words change – I – he/she ; me – him/her ; we – they ; us – them ; today – that day ; tomorrow – the next day ; yesterday – the day before ; here – there ; will - would

5. Change the following from direct to indirect speech by filling in the missing words:

  1. (i) I feel sorry for all the traumatised children,” said Mom. Mom said that ________________feels sorry for all the traumatised children.
  2. (ii) “When I see a soft, cuddly teddy bear, I wish I could donate it to the Centre,” said Tootsie. Tootsie _____________________________when sees a soft, cuddly teddy bear ____________wishes _____________ could donate it to the Centre.
  3. (iii) Monique asked, “How much pocket money did you receive today?” ______________ _______________how much pocket money did _______________ receive _________________ .
  4. (iv) “I wasn’t here to collect it today,” replied Tootsie. Tootsie replied _____________ ____________________wasn’t ______________ to collect it __________________ .

6. In the task on Direct Speech, you were requested to find and copy down three sentences from the text. Your challenge now is to attempt to change the same sentences into Indirect Speech.

Table 3
LO 4.4.2  
  1. Rewrite the speech bubbles in indirect speech.
Figure 5
Figure 5 (Picture 7.png)

Work together with a partner in this task:

Table 4
Who are the characters in the cartoon?  
   
What happens in your cartoon?  
   
What makes it funny?  
   
Do you find it funny?- and your partner?  
   
Why?  
Table 5
LO 3.2.1  
Figure 6
Figure 6 (Picture 12.png)
Figure 7
Figure 7 (Picture 13.png)
Figure 8
Figure 8 (Picture 14.png)
Table 6
LO 3.3  

Study the given jokes and cartoons. Rate them from 1 (least funny) to 5 (most humorous). Motivate why . . .

Figure 9
Figure 9 (Picture 16.png)
Table 7
LO 3.3  

Can you be a comedian?Write down a funny (and clean!) joke.

Assessment

Table 8
LO 3
READING AND VIEWINGThe learner is able to read and view for information and enjoyment, and respond critically to the aesthetic, cultural and emotional values in texts.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
 
We know this when the learner:
3.1 reads and responds critically to a variety of South African and international fiction and non-fiction (journals, poetry, novels, short plays, newspapers, text books, etc.):
3.1.1 reads aloud and silently, adjusting reading strategies to suit the purpose and audience;
3.1.2 uses appropriate reading and comprehension strategies (skimming, and scanning, predictions, contextual clues, inferences, monitoring comprehension, etc.);
3.2 views and discusses various visual and multi-media texts:
3.2.1 interprets and discusses message;
3.3 explains interpretation and overall response to text, giving reasons based on the text or own experience.
LO 4
WRITINGThe learner is able to write different kinds of factual and imaginative texts for a wide range of purposes.
We know this when the learner:
4.1 writes different kinds of texts for different purposes and audiences:
4.1.1 writes for personal, exploratory, playful, imaginative and creative purposes;
4.2 develops and organises ideas through a writing process:
4.2.1 brainstorms ideas for a topic and develops ideas by consulting a wide variety of sources, selecting relevant information, and organising the ideas using strategies such as mind maps, flow charts, grids, etc.;
4.2.2 produces a first draft with awareness of the central idea, and appropriate language and conventions for the specific purpose and audience;
4.2.3 revises work, focusing on improving the language, organisation and style, using feedback from classmates and/or teacher;
4.2.6 produces a final version incorporating feedback from classmates and/or teacher;
4.2.7 reflects on and critically evaluates the final product on own, and with classmates and teacher.
4.4 applies knowledge of language at different levels:
4.4.2 sentence level.

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