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Planning a radio advertisement

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

ARTS AND CULTURE

Grade 9

CREATING, INTERPRETATION AND PRESENTATION

Module 13

PLANNING A RADIO ADVERTISEMENT

DRAMA

This is your last Drama Activity for the year. You will be exploring the medium of Radio Broadcasting in this module. Your educator will give you the background to radio broadcasting in order for you to understand this form of performing art.

Radio broadcasting is focussed on the voice. Keep in mind that your audience is not able to see you, but can only hear you. You should still warm up your body and your voice before you can commence.

Activity 1:

To devise a routine to show to the class: THE WARM-UP

[LO 1.6]

Here is your chance to conduct a warm-up routine – the way you would like to warm up your body and voice! Remember to warm up your voice properly!

Hints on preparing your warm-up routine:

Relaxation

  • the first priority of the actor is relaxation
  • the actor’s body and voice are his ‘instruments’
  • tension of any kind impairs performance
  • tension usually shows itself first in the voice, because of shallow breathing
  • start with the shoulders
  • move on to arms and hands
  • the torso is the centre of all movement, because it contains our breath
  • breathing exercises are essential
  • end this section with the legs, ankles and feet

Posture:

  • posture must allow the free, expressive use of voice speech and movement
  • focus on keeping the shoulders straight, the abdomen from protruding, on breath control, etc.

Breathing and Voice:

  • good breathing is a fundamental requirement for voice production
  • all breathing exercises should be preceded by relaxation
  • the requirements for good voice production are relaxation, good posture, a plentiful supply of breath, controlled use of breathing by diaphragm and intercostal muscles, relaxed and unconstricted oral and pharyngeal resonators, and the formation of sounds well forward in the mouth to avoid a throaty tone and to assist projection
  • breathing must be done with the chest, by expanding the rib cage, and with the diaphragm

Hints on conducting a warm-up routine:

  • It is advisable to stand in front on the class when giving instructions.
  • Make sure your instructions are clear and audible.
  • Make sure your instructions are easy enough for the whole class to follow.
  • Demonstrate and explain each instruction before the class does the exercises.
  • Be creative.
  • Make it fun for yourself and the rest of the class.

Activity 2:

To participate in planning a RADIO ADVERTISEMENT

[LO 1.7]

Onwards, to your radio advertisement! You will be planning and producing a radio advertisement for the African Dance in Learning Unit 2, Grade 9 Module 4: Dance.

Keep in mind that you are going to be dealing with what your audience will HEAR. They cannot see you. Therefore you are reliant on your voice, music and special sound effects to produce a successful radio advertisement.

1. Sound effects

  • Produce various sound effects from objects found in the classroom.
  • Experiment and be creative.
  • Examples: rain, thunder, slamming doors, car slamming on brakes, tea being poured, wind, people walking, restaurant noises, jungle noises, etc.
  • Record the effects and play them back to the class.

2. The advertisement

  • Devise and plan a radio advertisement, advertising a special event happening at the school, e.g. the African Dance of ‘Activities for the Learner’, Grade 9 Module 4 Learning Unit 2.
  • The following aspects must be taken into consideration when planning this advertisement:
  • There has to be a script.
  • Who is doing the voice over (dialogue) for the advertisement?
  • Is there going to be music? if so, what?
  • Will special effects be used?
  • How long is the advertisement going to be? (not more than 60 seconds).
  • Who will be the director?
  • Who will be the producer?
  • Who is going to record the advertisement?
  • Is there recording equipment available for this project?
  • Who is the target audience?
  • Date, time and venue of the performance have to be included in the planning.
  • Divide into groups.
  • Plan, write and produce an advertisement for the “African Dance” of Learning Unit 2, Grade 9 Module 4: Dance.
  • Select the advertisement from the class you would like to broadcast – there can be more than one.

3. The BROADCAST

  • Broadcast the winning advertisements over the school intercom to advertise the dance.

Hints for producing a radio advertisement:

Discuss with your group what the ‘feel’ of the advertisement will be.

Select the information you would like to convey – time, date, venue, etc.

Select the special sound effects – if any.

Select the background music.

Write the script.

Select the person(s) who is(are) going to do the voice-over.

Keep your target audience in mind.

Be creative!

Have fun!

Hints for recording a radio advertisement:

Experiment with distance from the microphone (far-away sounds).

Experiment with loud and soft sounds – that includes the voice-over, music and special effects.

Do you want the music to be in the background or a prominent feature?

Assessment

Table 1
Learning Outcome(LOs)
 
LO 1
creating, interpreting and presentingThe learner will be able to create, interpret and present work in each of the art forms.
Assessment Standards(ASe)
 
We know this when the learner:
DANCE
1.1 participates in the choreography and presentation of a short dance for a performance or cultural event;1.2 in preparing the body, accurately performs a set warm-up and skill-building sequence, including body conditioning and dance technique in a particular style;1.3 moves across space in movement sequences with co-ordination, musicality, quality, style, balance and control;1.4 learns and performs, with appropriate style and movement quality, works choreographed by others from at least two cultures, which may be:
1.4.1 classical / traditional (African, Eastern or Western);
1.4.2 contemporary;
1.5 creates a dance that fuses steps or styles from more than one South African dance form with a clear beginning, middle and ending.
DRAMA
1.6 conducts a simple warm-up routine with the class;1.7 participates in an aspect of planning, organising, advertising, marketing, fund-raising or producing a dramatic item for an audience;

Memorandum

Activity 1

With this module you have to guide the learners to be able to conduct a warm-up routine for the class. It is important they keep the following aspects of the warm-up in mind when planning their warm-up routine:

Relaxation

  • The first priority of the actor is relaxation.
  • The actor’s body and voice are his instruments.
  • Tension of any kind impairs performance.
  • Tension usually shows itself first in the voice, because of shallow breathing.
  • Start with the shoulders.
  • Move on to arms and hands.
  • The torso is the centre of all movement, because it contains our breath.
  • Breathing exercises are essential.

- End this section with the legs, ankles and feet.

Posture

  • Posture must be such as to allow the free, expressive use of voice speech and movement.
  • Focus on keeping shoulders straight, the abdomen from protruding, on breath control, etc.

Breathing and Voice

  • Good breathing is a fundamental requirement for voice production.
  • All breathing exercises should be preceded by relaxation.
  • The requirements for good voice production are relaxation, good posture, a plentiful supply of breath, controlled use of breathing by diaphragm and intercostal muscles, relaxed and unconstricted oral and pharyngeal resonators, and the formation of sounds well forward in the mouth to avoid a throaty tone and to assist projection.

- Breathing must be done with the chest, by expanding the rib cage, and with the diaphragm.

Example of a Warm-up routine

Do a series of wide, broad but simple movements, using a maximum of space.

Involve the whole body.

Make movements with sufficient strength, but without straining the muscles.

Open yourself completely, spreading your arms and hands wide – keeping your legs apart.

Remain in this expanded position for eight counts.

Imagine that you are becoming larger.

Return to original position.

Repeat eight times.

‘Close’ yourself by crossing your arms over your chest – putting your hands on your shoulders.

Kneel on one or both knees, bending the head low.

Imagine you are becoming smaller and smaller, curling up, contracting as though the space around you is shrinking.

Return to the original position.

Stand with the backs of the hands resting on the lower ribs.

Inhale silently through the nose to a mental count up to six.

Aiming at a target on the other side of the room, say aloud ‘one-two-three’, with an open jaw.

Don’t use all the breath – let the rest ‘sigh out’.

Repeat eight times.

  • Note: Refer to the warm-up exercises in other drama modules for background information.
  • Hints / Suggestions:
  • Deep and correct breathing aids good posture and keeps the body in good tone.
  • Breathing can also help build up powers of concentration.
  • The more relaxed the body is, the more effortless and efficient the breathing will be.
  • Make sure the learners do not overdo the exercise.
  • A warm-up routine lays the foundation for the attainment of the requirements of the drama activities.
  • There will be shy and self-conscious learners in your class, and it will be difficult for them to stand in front of the class conducting a warm-up routine – have them realise that taking part in drama is fun – there is no right or wrong.
  • Because the activity concerns radio, instruct the learners to focus on vocal exercises for this module.

Activity 2

This Activity will probably be the learner’s first encounter with radio as a dramatic medium. Here follows a short background on radio broadcasting to share with your learners as an introduction to the practical activity of planning and producing a project for radio.

Background

Radio and television are the two most modern forms of art and entertainment.

In a way that even printing cannot, radio and television bring the outside world into the home.

The first radio signal through the air was made in 1895, but it was not until the 1920s that regular broadcasting became established.

Radio has made some of its biggest borrowings from the concert hall.

With news and its background, broadcasting has borrowed the techniques of newspapers and translated them into sound items.

Radio Dramas

Radio has created as well as borrowed art forms.

This is true of radio drama, where the effect is similar to that produced by reading a novel.

The listener builds up a mental image of what is happening.

Radio drama must do this entirely through dialogue, with a few sound effects to help set the scene and complete the illusion.

The ability of radio to leap though space and time gives it an advantage over theatre, cinema and television.

It can create impossible situations, which comedy writers have been quick to take advantage of.

Occasions

Radio and, even more so television, excel in bringing great occasions to life.

To do this, radio, the first in the field, created the ‘commentator’, who could describe to the listeners the scene he was watching.

Special Programmes

Broadcasting has given rise to numerous special kinds of programmes.

On the entertainment side, the best known is the serialised drama, often called a ‘soap opera’, because in the early days of such dramas on radio, many had a soap company as their sponsor.

Halfway between entertainment and information is the ‘chat show’, in which well known people take part in informal and often unscripted discussions.

In quiz programmes, professional teams and members of the public are invited to answer questions for prizes.

Other programmes include documentaries, educational programmes, religious broadcasting, children’s programmes, and music programmes (some specially aimed at the teenager and young adult and they have produced a new style of broadcaster – the Disc Jockey.)

Advertising

Almost as popular as the actual programmes, are the commercials – the advertisements that are broadcast by commercial radio and television stations to pay for the service.

Advertising ‘jingles’, with their catchy tunes, and many famous personalities are willing to participate in them.

Commercials provide the catchphrases which broadcasting has helped to put into everyday speech.

A form of musical catchphrase is the ‘signature tune’, which introduce the majority of regular programmes.

Tricks of the Trade

Radio and television employ tricks of the trade to make their programmes more enjoyable and realistic.

A broadcast from a small studio may sound as if it is coming from a big hall or other large building because ‘echo’ has been introduced.

Various sound effects are devised to create sounds and effects that cannot physically be brought into the studio, e.g. the weather.

Nowadays most of these special sound effects are pre-recorded!

1. Sound Effects

  • Have the learners produce various sound effects from objects found in the classroom.
  • Record the effects and play them back to the class.

2. The Advertisement

  • Have the learners devise and plan a radio advertisement, advertising a special event happening at the school, e.g. the African Dance of ‘Activities for the Learner Grade 9 Module 4 Learning Unit 2’.
  • The following aspects must be taken into consideration when planning this advertisement:
  • There has to be a script.
  • Who is doing the voice-over (dialogue) for the advertisement?
  • Is there going to be music? If so, what is it going to be?
  • Will special effects be used? Which?
  • How long is the advertisement going to be? (Not more than 60 seconds)
  • Who will be the director?
  • Who will be the producer?
  • Who is going to record the advertisement?
  • Is there recording equipment available for this project?
  • Who is the target audience?
  • Divide the learners up into groups – depending on how large or small your class is.
  • Have the groups plan, write and produce an advertisement for the “African Dance” of Learning Unit 2, Grade 9 Module 4: Dance.
  • Let the learners select the advertisement they would like to broadcast – there can be more than one.

3The Broadcast

  • Broadcast the winning advertisements over the school intercom to advertise the dance.

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