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    This module and collection are included inLens: Siyavula: Social Sciences (Gr. 4-6)
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Antieke medisyne uit Afrika en Europa

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

SOSIALE WETENSKAPPE: GESKIEDENIS

Graad 6

ONTWIKKELING VAN DIE MEDIESE WETENSKAP

Module 1

ANTIEKE MEDISYNE UIT AFRIKA EN EUROPA

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om tussen primêre en sekondêre bronne oor antieke medisyne te onderskei en afleidings daaruit te maak

[LU 3.3]

a) Wat is medisyne?

Vul die blokkies in en skryf neer waaraan jy dink as jy die woord medisyne hoor, of wat dit vir jou beteken.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (Picture 1.png)

Vervolgens gaan ons kyk hoe die mediese wetenskap ontwikkel het!

b) Oudste siektes

Die oudste vorm van siekte is deur 'n professor in 'n fossiel van 'n dinosourus gevind. Miljoene jare gelede het die reuse- dier kanker in sy lang stert ontwikkel. Dink net hoe moeilik het die dier met die pyn in sy stert beweeg en hoe moeilik het hy kos gevind. Die dier het maerder en maerder geword en later gesterf.

c) Steentydperk

Voordat wetenskaplikes medisyne gemaak het, het die mens en dier sy eie metodes gebruik. 'n Siek hond eet gras of lek gedurig aan 'n stukkende plek om dit gesond te maak.

Die eerste medisyneman of toordokter vind ons in die Steentydperk ongeveer 17 000 jaar gelede. Hierdie mense het rotstekeninge, waaruit ons baie kan leer, in grotte gemaak.

d) Opdrag

Bestudeer meegaande bron en bespreek die vrae in jul groepe.

Figure 2
Figure 2 (graphics1.png)
Figure 3
Figure 3 (Picture 2.png)

  1. a) San
Figure 4
Figure 4 (graphics2.png)

Die San in Suidelike Afrika het ook gesondheidsprobleme gehad. Slangbyte, giftige spinnekoppe, skerpioene en beserings as gevolg van die jag van wilde diere, het baie mense se dood veroorsaak. Toordokters is soms geraadpleeg om die siekes gesond te maak. Daar is geglo dat iemand wat siek word, deur geeste oorgeneem word en die toordokter was die gees, persoon of ding wat die siekte veroorsaak. Die San het ook kruie-bossies en wortels van verskeie plante as medisyne gebruik. Soms is hierdie plante tot as verbrand, in 'n pasta gemeng en in die wond ingevryf. Slangbyte is toegebind met 'n slangvel op die wond om die gif uit te trek.

f) Khoina

Die Khoina het geglo dat siektes deur geeste van dooies uit grafte veroorsaak word. Hulle het ook toordokters gehad waarvan party 'n goeie kennis van kruie- medisyne gehad het. Die Khoina-dokter het gewoonlik 'n klein houertjie gedra waarin bestanddele van plantwortels, plante, vleis en bene van diere gedra is. Hierdie inhoud is opgesny, tot poeier gemaak en as medisyne gebruik.

g) Eerste hospitaal en medisyne wat aan die Kaap gebruik is

Die eerste hospitaal aan die Kaap is deur Jan van Riebeeck in die fort ingerig. Die hospitaal was baie ongerieflik. Die matrasse is van materiaal gemaak, met gras gestop en op 'n harde plank geplaas.

Figure 5
Figure 5 (Picture 3.png)

Die veeboere, en baie jare later die Voortrekkers, het op hul trek na die binneland verskeie interessante rate gebruik. Kindersiektes, soos kinkhoes en masels, het dikwels voorgekom en baie kinders het daaraan gesterf. Elke gesin het 'n medisynetrommeltjie met allerhande middels daarin gehad.

Lees die volgende boererate en besluit of jul groep dit sal gebruik:

Maagsiektes: Blare en wortels van plante is gekook en gedrink.

Pleisters: Pleisters is van doringboom- of bloekomblare en asyn gemaak.

Longontsteking: 'n Warm bokvel is op die pasiënt se bors geplaas.

Asma: 'n Kind moes soggens vroeg in die perdestalle speel sodat die salpeterreuk van die perde se urine sy bors kon laat ooptrek.

Figure 6
Figure 6 (Picture 4.png)

h) Medisyne wat in Engeland gebruik is

Die interessante medisyne-advertensie op die volgende bladsy het meer as ‘n 100 jaar gelede in 1893 in die London News in Engeland verskyn.

Figure 7
Figure 7 (Picture 5.png)

Figure 8
Figure 8 (Picture 6.png)

1. Wie het die pille gemaak?

2. Waarvoor is die pille gebruik? (2 redes)

3. Wat word bedoel met "Carter's Victory"? Raadpleeg 'n woordeboek.

4. Verduidelik wat word met die slagspreuk "Attack and Defence" bedoel?

5. Waar is die pille verkoop?

6. Watter woorde bewys dat die pille goedkoop was?

7. Probeer vasstel hoeveel geld 1s 1½d in rand en sent is.

8. Waarom het die kunstenaar voëls in die advertensie gebruik?

9. Verduidelik die gebeure in die skets.

i) Medisyne wat vandag gebruik word

Figure 9
Figure 9 (Picture 7.png)
Table 1
SIEKTE MEDISYNE PRYS SMAAK
Hoofpyn Compral pille R12,99 Smaakloos
       
       
       
Figure 10
Figure 10 (Picture 8.png)

Assessering

Table 2
LU 3
HISTORIESE VERTOLKINGDie leerder is in staat om aspekte van die geskiedenis te interpreteer.
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
3.1 bronne interpreteer:
  • twee weergawes van ‘n historiese gebeurtenis vergelyk deur gebruik te maak van visuele of geskrewe bronne;
3.2 die verlede rekonstrueer:
  • onderskeid tref tussen opinies, feite en inligting;
3.3 voorstelling van die verlede maak:
  • items identifiseer en selekteer van ‘n aspek van die verlede wat onder bespreking is, wat sal bydra tot ‘n klasuitstalling, skoolmuseum of gemeenskap.

Memorandum

d) Primêr: Dit kom vanaf die Latynse woord wat “eerste” beteken.

Dié bron is geskep in die tyd toe die gebeurtenis plaasgevind het – dus die oorspronklike bron.

Dit is baie kosbaar, en hoe verder mens in die tyd beweeg, hoe minder primêre bronne is beskikbaar, want dit word beskadig of raak weg.

Voorbeelde: dagboekinskrywings, briewe, sketse, skilderye, foto’s, ens.

Sekondêr: Dit ontstaan nadat ‘n gebeurtenis plaasgevind het.

Dit berus by, of kom vanaf primêre bronne.

Dié rotstekening is dus ‘n sekondêre bron.

b) i) Carter

ii) lewer, hoofpyn

iii) Effektiewe medisyne

iv) Val siekte aan of verdedig liggaam teen siekte

v) Apteke, Engeland

vi) “small price”

vii) 1½ d = 1 pennie (± 1 sent), 1s (sjieling) : 12 pennies

viii) Geveg tussen siekte en herstel (goeie, kwade)

(Ouer mense ken nog dié pille!)

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