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TEGNOLOGIE

Graad 9

MEGANISMES EN BEWEGING

Module 4

NOKKE

NOKKE

  • Soos ander meganismes, verander nokke een tipe beweging in ’n ander. Daar is twee tipes: liniêr en draaiend. Draainokke is baie algemeen in masjiene en word gebruik om ’n draaibeweging in heen-en-weerbeweging te verander. Nokke het verskillende vorms en is aan ’n roterende as vas. Die vorm, grootte en posisie van die as in die nok sal die afstand en beweging van die leweringsas bepaal wat aan die gedrewe katrol vas is. ’n Gedrewe katrol volg die nok wat die verlangde lewering gee.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (Picture 1.png)

Draai- of sirkelvormige nokke

  • Hierdie nokke verander ’n draaibeweging in heen-en-weerbeweging. Dit is gewoonlik van metaal of plastiek gemaak en op ’n as gemonteer. ’n Veer of die gewig van die gedrewe katroll hou dit op die nok. Draainokke is hoofsaaklik sirkelvormig en kan van hart- tot peervormig wees.
Figure 2
Figure 2 (Picture 2.png)

Lineêre nokke

  • Hierdie nokke verander die rigting van die heen-en-weerbeweging. Die nok kan enige profiel hê en beweeg heen en weer terwyl die gedrewe katrol die profiel volg. Met hierdie nokke het die gedrewe katrol gewoonlik ’n klein wieletjie om die beweging glad te maak.
Figure 3
Figure 3 (Picture 3.png)
  • Wanneer jy iets soos ’n meganiese speelding ontwerp, is beweging uiters belangrik. Die insetdraaibeweging kan verkry word deur ’n kruk aan die slinger te heg. Die leweringsbeweging hang van verskillende faktore af. Die sketse hieronder toon drie verskillende maniere om leweringsbeweging te verkry.

1. Nok-op-en-afbeweging

Figure 4
Figure 4 (Picture 4.png)

2. Wrywingswiel – aspenne

Figure 5
Figure 5 (Picture 5.png)

3. Wiel en verbindingstaaf

Figure 6
Figure 6 (Picture 6.png)
  • Deur die basiese beginsels toe te pas, kan jy maklik ’n handgedrewe meganisme bou sonder om te tegnies te raak.

Figure 7
Figure 7 (Picture 7.png)

Die kruk

  • ’n Stoomenjin is ’n baie goeie voorbeeld van ’n krukmeganisme. Die kruk gebruik die wiel-en-asbeginsel. Kan jy onthou hoe jy op jou eerste driewiel gery het? Die wiel en pedaalas is ’n goeie voorbeeld van ’n kruk.
Figure 8
Figure 8 (Picture 8.png)
  • Verskeie slingers kan gekombineer word om ’n krukas te vorm. Die krukas het ’n baie belangrike funksie in feitlik elke masjien met bewegende dele. Die suiers in jou pa se motor word deur die krukas op en af gestoot.
Figure 9
Figure 9 (Picture 9.png)

Aktiwiteit 1

  • Maak ’n eenvoudige skets van ’n slinger wat jy in ’n handgedrewe meganiese speelding kan gebruik.
  • Teken drie verskillende vorms van nokke. Illustreer ook die verskil wat dit aan die leweringsbeweging sal maak.
  1. Noem twee voorbeelde van nokke en krukke wat in masjiene gebruik word.

Table 1
         
  LU 2.3      
         

Assessering

Table 2
LU 2
TEGNOLOGIESE KENNIS EN BEGRIPDie leerder is in staat om relevante tegnologiese kennis te verstaan en dit eties en verantwoordelik toe te pas.
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
strukture:2.1 kennis en begrip toon van strukture:
  • eienskappe van materiaal wat die funksie daarvan in strukture affekteer (bv. massa, hardheid, styfheid, veerkragtigheid, weerstand teen korrosie, sterkte in spanning, samepersing, skuifwerking);
  • ontleding (geen berekeninge nie) van die uitwerking van verskillende laste (gelyke/ongelyke, statiese/dinamiese);
stelsels en beheer:2.3 deur praktiese analise, kennis en begrip van interaktiewe meganiese sisteme en subsisteme demonstreer en sulke sisteme en subsisteme met diagrammatiese sisteemdiagramme voorstel:
  • ratstelsels;
  • band gedrewe of katrolsisteme met meer as een stadium;
  • meganiese beheermeganismes.

Memorandum

AKTIWITEIT 1

1.1

Figure 10
Figure 10 (Picture 19.png)

1.2

Figure 11
Figure 11 (Picture 20.png)
Figure 12
Figure 12 (Picture 21.png)
Figure 13
Figure 13 (Picture 22.png)

  • Slinger/kruk ------- krukas/driewiel

Nok ------- Nok op nokas

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