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Natuurlike hulpbronne: minerale

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

AARDRYKSKUNDE

Graad 5

HULPBRONNE

Module 18

NATUURLIKE HULPBRONNE: MINERALE

Minerale as natuurlike hulpbron

Suid-Afrika is ryk aan minerale soos goud, yster, steenkool, platinum en diamante. Soos die kaart op die volgende bladsy duidelik aandui, is die minerale van Suid-Afrika in die noordoostelike deel van ons land gekonsentreer. Steenkool en goud maak ‘n baie groot persentasie van ons land se minerale rykdom uit.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (graphics1.png)

Minerale van Suid-Afrika

Sommige van die minerale word op die oppervlak gedelf (diamante), terwyl ander diep onder die grond onder baie gevaarlike omstandighede gemyn word.

Yster, wat ‘n kernkomponent in die vervaardiging van staal is, is weer nie so volop nie. Staal word vervaardig deur ystererts en ander minerale in groot oonde saam te smelt. Plat plate staal word hieruit vervaardig, wat weer later gebruik word om ander produkte te vervaardig. Staal vorm ‘n baie belangrike komponent in die moderne vervaardigingsproses. Dink maar net weer aan die motor waarna ons vroeër in die module verwys het. Sonder staal sal die produksielyn vir motorvoertuie buite produksie wees.

Daar is twee hoofmetodes van mynbou:

oop myne;

tonnelmyne.

Minerale soos yster, koper, asbes en diamante word somtyds in oop myne gedelf. Dit is bloot ‘n groot oop gat in die aarde wat op so ‘n manier gegrawe word dat daar ‘n spiraalpad na die diepste deel van die gat lei. So kan voertuie dan tot op elke vlak van die myn beweeg om erts en materiaal te vervoer na die plek van prosessering.

Figure 2
Figure 2 (graphics2.png)

Wanneer minerale egter baie diep onder die grond gevind word, is dit nodig om ‘n skag in die aarde te maak sodat die mynwerkers by die minerale kan uitkom. ‘n Skagtoring word opgerig en ‘n diep gat word in die grond geboor. Uit hierdie gat word dwarsgange en tonnels deur skaggrawers gegrawe tot by die riwwe met delfstowwe. Hierdie gange en tonnels lê op verskillende vlakke.

Die minerale word met dinamiet losgeskiet en dan uitgegrawe. Die “gruis” word dan op ysterbakke (koekepanne), wat soos ‘n trein op ‘n spoor loop, gelaai en met hysbakke na die oppervlak van die grond gehys waar dit verwerk word en oortollige rots op mynhope gegooi word. Die waterige oorblyfsels gaan na ‘n slykdam.

AKTIWITEIT

OM 'N DIAGRAM VAN BYSKRIFTE TE VOORSIEN

[LU 1.1]

  • Raadpleeg weer die vorige paragrawe en voorsien die dwarssnit van ‘n tonnelmyn van die nodige byskrifte.
    Figure 3
    Figure 3 (graphics3.png)

Assessering

LU 1

AARDRYKSKUNDIGE ONDERSOEK

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.

Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:

  • bronne met nuttige aardrykskundige inligting kan kies en gebruik;
  • tussen feite en menings onderskei [werk met bronne];
  • inligting kategoriseer;
  • sketskaarte en/of planne na aanleiding van veldwaarnemings en afmetings teken [werk met bronne];

1.6 moontlike oplossings vir probleme identifiseer en ondersoek [beantwoord die vraag];

  • deur projekte, bespreking, debat en diagramme, kennis en begrip van die vraagstuk toon [dra die antwoord oor].

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