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    This module and collection are included inLens: Siyavula: Social Sciences (Gr. 4-6)
    By: Siyavula

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Skaal en afstand

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

AARDRYKSKUNDE

Graad 5

KAARTWERK

Module 6

SKAAL EN AFSTAND

1. Kaartskale en afstandsberekening

As jy ‘n plan of kaart van ‘n vertrek wil teken, kan jy mos nie die vel papier net so groot soos die vertrek maak nie. Jy moet die vertrek op papier VERKLEIN. Om dit te kan doen, moet jy van ‘n SKAAL gebruik maak. Kom ons vat Tom se leefvertrek en vergelyk dit met ‘n plan of kaart van dieselfde leefvertrek.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (graphics1.png)

Tom se leefvertrek

Figure 2
Figure 2 (graphics2.png)

Kaart van Tom se leefvertrek

Op hierdie kaart van TOM se leefvertrek is daar van ‘n lynskaal gebruik gemaak.

Dit beteken dat in hierdie kaart van Tom se leefvertrek een sentimeter op die kaart gelyk is aan een meter in die regte lewe.

Verskillende kaarte se skale wissel natuurlik ook.

2. Hoe om afstand te bepaal met ’n lynskaal

Die afstand tussen twee plekke word met ‘n liniaal of meetpasser op die kaart akkuraat afgemeet.

Figure 3
Figure 3 (graphics3.png)

Meet dit dan direk op die lynskaal af.

Table 1
                   
Skaal: 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 cm

AKTIWITEIT 1

OM VAN 'N LYNSKAAL GEBRUIK TE MAAK

[LU 1.1]

1. Wat is die werklike lengte van Tom se rusbank?________ m.

2. Bestudeer jou atlas en doen dan die volgende afstandsberekeninge volgens die lynskaal. (Meet soos die kraai vlieg, dus reguit.)

Hoe ver is dit vanaf jou tuisdorp na die monding van die Garieprivier?

Wat is die afstand vanaf jou tuisdorp na Johannesburg?

Vind Durban op die kaart. Verbeel jou jy woon daar en wil na die volgende plekke gaan: Pretoria, Kaapstad, Bloemfontein

Hoeveel km gaan jy na elke bestemming reis?

In watter rigting gaan jy na elkeen reis?

Vul jou antwoorde in die oop spasies in.

Table 2
  Afstand in km     Rigting waarin jy beweeg
Pretoria        
Kaapstad        
Bloemfontein        
         

3. Verhoudingskale

Daar kom ook VERHOUDINGSKALE op kaarte voor, byvoorbeeld 1 : 100 000. Dit beteken dat die werklikheid 100 000 keer groter is as die kaart. As jy nou wil meet hoe ver twee plekke van mekaar geleë is, moet jy ‘n berekening doen.

Byvoorbeeld: Twee plekke is 2 cm van mekaar geleë op ‘n 1 : 50 000 kaart.

Dus 2 cm x 50 000 = 100 000 cm = 100 m

= 1 km

So ‘n berekening kan nogal moeilik wees. Vir ons doeleindes sal jy dus nou eerder van die lynskaal gebruik maak.

BELANGRIKE FEIT!

Kaartskale help jou om te bepaal hoe ver een plek van ‘n ander geleë is.

Assessering

LU 1

AARDRYKSKUNDIGE ONDERSOEK

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.

Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:

bronne met nuttige aardrykskundige inligting kan kies en gebruik;

inligting kategoriseer;

sketskaarte en/of planne na aanleiding van veldwaarnemings en afmetings teken;

‘n indeks gebruik om plekke op wêreldatlaskaarte te vind;

deur projekte, bespreking, debat en diagramme, kennis en begrip van die vraagstuk toon [dra die antwoord oor].

Memorandum

3m

Table 3
  Afstand in km     Rigting waarin jy beweeg
Pretoria ±500 km     NW
Kaapstad 1 300 km     SW
Bloemfontein ±460 km     W
         

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