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Topografiese kaarte en foto's

Module by: Siyavula Uploaders. E-mail the author

Sosiale Wetenskappe

AARDRYKSKUNDE

Graad 8

KAARTWERK

Module 17

TOPOGRAFIESE KAARTE EN FOTO’S

1. Topografiese kaarte en foto’s

Die groot verskil tussen ’n foto en ’n kaart is dat ’n kaart ’n vertikale “plan” van ’n gebied voorstel, terwyl ’n foto ’n werklike beeld gee.

Gewone foto’s soos ons dit ken, word geneem terwyl die kamera horisontaal vasgehou word.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (Picture 1.png)

Voorwerpe wat naby die kamera is, is groot en dié wat verder is, lyk kleiner. Voorwerpe op die voorgrond verberg ook inligting wat daaragter geleë is. Dit word “dooie grond” genoem. Wat agter die dubbelverdiepinggebou aangaan, is onbekend. Sulke foto’s kan nie vir die teken van kaarte gebruik word nie.

Vir die teken van kaarte word gebruik gemaak van ’n spesiale soort lugfoto. Hierdie foto’s word vertikaal afwaarts vanuit ’n spesiale vliegtuig geneem.

Bestudeer die vertikale lugfoto van Pietermaritzburg (Figuur 1). Die 1:50 000 kaart en die lugfoto toon dieselfde area aan. Jy sal dus dieselfde voorwerpe op die kaart en die lugfoto kan identifiseer.

Figure 2
Figure 2 (graphics1.png)

Figuur 1

Voorbeeld:

  • Op die kaart sal ‘n tegniese kollege gevind word by 29º 35' 30" S; 30º 23' 43" O. Op die lugfoto is die posisie van die kollege gemerk S.
  • Deur die eienskappe van die kaart met die lugfoto te vergelyk word baie ander eienskappe herken.

Figure 3
Figure 3 (graphics2.png)

Figuur 2

AKTIWITEIT 1

[LU 1.4]

  • Gebruik die topografiese kaart (figuur 2) en die lugfoto van Pietermaritzburg (figuur 1) en beantwoord die volgende vrae. Merk slegs die korrekte antwoord deur ‘n sirkel om die korrekte keusenommer te maak.

1. Die punt F op die lugfoto is die

a) nasionale pad.

b) grondpad.

c) spoorlyn.

2. As die woongebied van Willowton sou uitbrei sou dit groei na die

a) suide.

b) weste.

c) ooste.

3. Die belangrikste deurpad op hierdie kaart is die

a) N6.

b) N3.

c) N2.

4. Die verskynsel gemerk E op die foto is ‘n

a) watertoring.

b) atletiekbaan.

c) krieketveld.

5. Die voorwerp gemerk 2 is ‘n

a) voetpad.

b) brug.

c) rivier.

6. Die voorwerp gemerk C is ‘n

a) fabriek.

b) polisiekantoor.

c) woonhuis.

7. Die voorwerp gemerk I is ‘n

a) watertoring.

b) wagtoring.

c) silo.

Assessering

Table 1
Leeruitkomstes(LUs)
 
LU 1
Aardrykskundige OndersoekDie leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.
Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
 
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
1.1 ‘n verskeidenheid geografiese en omgewingsbronne identifiseer en selekteer wat relevant tot die navorsing is;1.2 inligting vanaf kaarte en atlasse, asook grafiese en statistiese bronne, interpreteer;1.3 afstandberekening doen op kaarte en dit vergelyk met werklike afstand;1.4 fisiese en mensgemaakte eienskappe op lugfoto’s en kaarte identifiseer.

Memorandum

AKTIWITEIT 1

  • (c) Spoorlyn.
  • (c) Ooste.

3. (b) N3.

4. (c) Krieketveld.

5. (b) Brug.

6. (c) Woonhuis.

7. (a) Watertoring.

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