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# 50 years Journey of IC Technology_Appendix I

Module by: Bijay_Kumar Sharma. E-mail the author

Summary: This describes the history of development in the fields of Sold State Technology, Electronics,IC Technology, Computer, Super-Computer, microprocessor chips , local area network(LAN) and submarine cables.

Appendix I

Table I.1. Road Map of development of Solid State technology.

[“A brief history of semiconductors” by Tudor Jenkins, Physics Education, 40(5),pp.430-439;

“ The lost history of the Transistor- How 50 years ago, Texas Instruments and Bell Labs pushed electronics into the Silicon Age” by Michael Riordan, IEEE Spectrum, May 2004, pp.44-49]

Table I.2. Road Map of development of Electronics & IC Technology.(1876-1959&1959-2009)

[“One hundred years of Electronics” by Frank Thompson, Physics Education, 40(3), May 2005, pp252-256]

 Year Invention 1876 Alexandre Grahm Bell patents Telephone 1878 Thomas Alva Edison patents incandescent lamp. 1895 J.J Thomson discovers electron as the basic building block of Atom through the study of Cathode Ray. 1896 Marconi introduces the concept of Wireless Communication more commonly known as Radio Communication. 1904 John Ambrose Fleming invents & patents Vacuum Tube Diode(two electrodes device). 1906 Lee De Forest invented Vacuum Triode ( three electrodes device). This becomes the work horse of Early Electronics. and used it to achieve RC coupled Amplifier. 1909 Marconi and Jagdish Chandra Bose simultaneously announce the invention of radio transmission and reception. 1909 Around the same time, point contact solid state diode or cat’s whisker was introduced as detector in radio Receiver. 1911 Using Heaviside “Distortion-less Transmission Condition” i.e. loading the Telephone cables with large inductors, first long distance telephone call was made from New York to Denver, Colorado, over a distance of 2000 miles. 1913 Vacuum Tube Repeater introduced in Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN). 1915 Using inductor loading & R.C Coupled Amplifier, first transcontinental telephone call is made from New York to San Francisco across a distance of 4000miles. Telephone becomes a Public Utility Service. 1919 Hull patents 4 electrode Tetrode. This had Cathode, Grid, Screen and Anode. Because of back emission of electrons from the anode , the output characteristics had a kink. So this device could not become popular. 1926 Jobst and Telegn introduced a fifth suppressor electrode to prevent back emission and remove the kink. This was known as Pentode. 1945 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator) build by Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC is 27Metric Tonnes , consumes 200kW and occupies a large room. The valves had a high failure rate of one per 10 minutes therefore valve based computers could only have niche applications. Valve based computer could not become a house hold item. 1945 First Transoceanic Telephone Links established using voice quality coaxial cables. Telegraphic Cables are not suitable for Telephone Conservation. Voice quality cables were developed during World War II and introduced right after the War .Before the World War II , no TransAtlantic or TransPacific Telephonic Links were there. Across the oceans only Radio-Telephone call could be made. 1947 At Bell Laboratories, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain & William Shockley invented BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor). They were awarded Nobel Prize in 1953 in Physics for this invention. 1952 UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer)- First computer designed for business use. The inventors were John Mauchy & John Eckart.7.26 Metric Tonnes, 5000 Vacuum tubes & 1000 calculators per second. These are termed FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS. 1956 UNIVAC II using transistors come in the market. Manufactures are Sperry Rand, USA. These are termed as SECOND GENRATION COMPUTERS. Road Map of development of Integrated Circuit Technology(1959-2009) 1959 Integrated Circuit (IC) chip invented by Jack Kilby (Texas Instrument) and Robert Noyce (FairChild). Discrete active and passive devices are integrated together on one wafer thin silicon chip in the area of 1cm by 1cm square, mounted on a header and then properly encapsulated and sealed. At the time it started, it had only 30 components in the 1 square cm area. This heralded the Information Age and THIRD Information Revolution. It also produced an Explosion in electronic consumer and communication applications such as Personal Computers to cell Phones. Jack Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in the year 2000. Jack Kilby passed away on 1st August 2005. Robert Noyce went on to establish “ INTEL” (Integrated Electronics) along with Gordon Moore and Andy Grove . He passed away earlier than Jack Kilby so he could not be awarded. Noble Prizes are not awarded posthumously. Today a multiprocessor chip has billion transistors in the same chip size and can perform as well as a Supercomputer. 1961 FIRST RLT (Resistance Transistor logic) IC Chip is commercially marketed by T I (Texas Instrument) and FairChild. 1964 FIRST Analog IC Amp. Chip MC 1530 marketed by Motorola. Op. Amp. stands for Operational Amplifier which were in yesteryears used in Analo Computers for different Mathematical Operations and hence the name Op. Amp. 1964 PDP 8, table top computer introduced in the market .It was a 8-bit computer meaning by the address size is 8 bit. Larger is the address word, larger is the address capability. 4-bit means 16 locations can be addressed and 8-bit means 256 locations can be addressed. This used IC Chips hence it was compact and less power consuming. This was THE THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER. Price $18,000.00, 125 kg, and 4kBytes memory. 1968 18th July, INTEL (Integrated Electronics) was established by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore . Later this team was joined by Andy Grove. Today 80% Personal Computers are equipped with INTEL Microprocessors. 1970 Advance Research Program Agency (ARPA) established ARPANET, the first WAN (Wide Area Network), connecting Stanford Research Institute, University of Utah, University of California Los Angles and University of California Santa Barbara mainly for Defense research purposes. In three years it grew to cover whole USA. 1970 PDP-11 introduced with 16 address word. 1971 FIRST INTEL MICROPRPCESSOR CHIP (μP 4004) introduced in the market . It can handle 4-bit data word and 8-bit address word meaning by it can address 256 locations. This 1 chip combined the function of 12 subsystems of a CPU(Central Processor Unit). This one silicon chip (1cm×1cm)had 2300 transistor , system clock rate 108kHz, Cost$299.00 . In India it was available for Rs.7500.00.[A development contract from a Japanese Company , for a set of chips needed to power an electronic calculator , triggered off what became the world’s first computer-on-a-chip: the Microprocessor. 35 years ago, INTEL, a small Santa Clara (US) based manufacturer of memory and switching devices, unveiled a thumbnail-sized slab of silicon encased in a ceramic casing with 16 pins: this ushered in the era of Personal Computers, the era of Desk Top Computing and the era of FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS. The contract with Busicom required INTEL to deliver the electronics for calculating machine, as a set of 12 custom built chips. The electrical engineer assigned to handle the task-Dr. Marcian “TED” Hoff , a PhD from the Stanford university-had an inspired thought. Why make a set of chips just for one application? Why not generalize the design so that other computing tools could be built with the same generalized design?In the process ,Dr. Hoff also suggested that the composite elements of a computer , as it was then understood- a unit to do the arithmetic (ALU-Arithmetic-Logic-Unit), a small memory and input and output interface –could be combined in a single slab of silicon.. When Busicom had cash flow problems, INTEL bought back the design it had created and slipped the product into its own catalogue. Intel μP 4004 was sold to Defense Establishment in India at a cost of Rs 7,000.00. Intel’s Indian Agent was Hyderabad based Electronics International which was later named as Microelectronics International] Gordon Moore predicted that number of transistors on integrated circuits( a rough measure of computer processing power) will double every 18 months at a minimum cost. It became a self fulfilling prophecy.Moore’s Law has become a yardstick of our progress as we harness the cunning of NATURE’s design strategies. 1971 Electronic Mail or e-mail is invented by Ray Tomilinson. 1972 first 8 bit μP 8008 introduced by Intel. 1977 First Personal Computer was introduced, named APPLE II , at a price of $1300.00 .It had 4kB RAM. It had a software VisiCalc the best spread sheet package of its day. This was formally the FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER. 1978 Intel introduces 8086 µP Chip which had 16bit data word and 16bit address word . 1981 IBM introduced its own brand of Personal Computer PC5150 based on 8088µP Intel Chip. Clock Rate was the same as that of APPLE II but memory was much bigger at 40kB. GREEN SCREEN, 2x5” Floppy Drives for loading OS. IBM PC design accounts for 90% PCs. APPLE PC design accounts for 10% PCs. 1982 Intel introduces 80826µp Chip (16 bit data bus and 24 bit address bus and 68 pin package). 1986 80386(Intel) and 68030(Motorola) introduces 24 bit address bus. 1988 First Trans Atlantic Optical Fiber Cable, TAT8, used in place of coaxial cable.Coaxial Cable can carry 3,000 simultaneous phone calls. In contrast Optical Fiber cable can carry 37,500 simultaneous telephone calls with the present state of art of electronics. As the switching speed increases, the number of simultaneous calls increases exponentially. 1993 PENTIUM I introduced . it had 3.1x106 CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) placed on one chip .it could perform 90MFLOPS, 5 TIMES THE SPEED OF 80486. data bus 32 bits and address bus 32 bits clock rate 1500 times that of 4004 . 2001 Pentium IV chip introduced;Nano-electronics chip;It has 42 million transistors packed in an area of 1 cm by 1 cm; System Clock Rate is 2GHz; 20,000 more powerful than 4004 μP Chip; Cost Rs 15,000.00 2003 APPLE introduces Power Mac G5 PC.64 bit data word and 64 bit address word; 18 PETA Memory locations can be addressed; System Bus operates at 800 MHz; System Clock operates at 2GHz, dual processors; 80 to 160GB hard disc; 256MB to 512MB high speed RAM; From here onward we have 64 bit computing era starts. 2004 “ Project Columbia” a$50 million super-computer built by SILICON GRAPHICS is introduced;it is powered by 10,240 processors in 20 units; it is Intel Itanium chips; it performs 43 Tera FLOPS as compared to the world record of 36TFLOPS performed by IBM’s BlueGene/L super computer;This is a ten fold increase in NASA’s supercomputing capacity; Applications in hurricane tracking, weather modeling and earth’s interior imaging; 2005 GeForce 7800 GTX (latest Graphics Processing Unit or GPU) introduced by US-based nVIDIA Corporation for Video Games;302 million CMOS on one 1cm x1cm chip; Performs 202 GFLOPS; 10% less power consumption ; 50% quieter twice as powerful as its processors 6800 but it costs the same as before that is Rs. 32,000.00 ;Market for video games is one of the fastest growing sectors in Computer Industry; 2005 Dual cores Microprocessor chip are introduced;Intel introduces Pentium “Extreme Edition” 840 with Clock Rate=3.2GHz and with billon transistors . This is dual core as well as it has a software called‘hyperthreading’(HT). This is a software which enables one to work with doublevirtual processors. Thus a dual core with HT will allow application developers to write software that can carve up the task between four processors;Intel introduces Xeon for servers and Pentium M for laptops; AMD introduces Opteron 800 series for servers and workstations; AMD introduces Athlon 64 X2 for consumers and business PC’s; 2008 October GeForce 9400M is a single chip solution for graphical processing platform for portable applications. It has computing rate of 55GFlops (Floating Point Operations), the most powerful integrated graphics processor in the market in 2008. It has 6 cores operating in parallel. But much less power hungry. New MacBook family will be fuelled by these chips. 2008November Intel and AMD have launched a native quad processor unlike the earlier version where 2 dual core chips had been combined in the same package. Intel has launched ‘Nehalem’,the i7 processor using 45nm technology. AMD has launched 45nm Opteron. Both achieve the 4 cores on the same silicon slab. This has double the Memory Bandwidth. These conserve energy by cutting down power when the device is idle. 2009 Interplanetary Internet Protocols are tested by using computers on the International Space Station. Eventually there will be an internet connectivity among Earth, multiple probes, rovers, orbiters and space crafts exploring the solar system. This will be the basis of Interplanetary Internet. The network’s key technologies are called Delay Tolerant Networking(DTN) protocols. The problem in deep space internet is the huge delay and occultation of the nodes. To overcome this problem “store and forward” technique will be used. The node will save the data and then passes on when the link is again established. A third test is yet to be carried. In this a security protocol and a new file-transfer protocol will be used. 2010 Pacific Unity will lay multiple fibers. Total capacity; 7.68 terabits per second.

ROAD MAP OF SUPERCOMPUTER.[‘The Data’, IEEE SPECTRUM, APRIL 2009]

Table I.3. Road Map of Super Computer.

 Year Name No.of processors Capability Cost 1976 Illiac IV 64 TeraFLOPS 480kFLOPS/million dollar 1976 Cray 1 1 TeraFLOPS 17.78MFLOPS/ million dollars 1988 CRAY Y-MP 8-vectorprocessor TeraFLOPS 111.5MFLOPS/ million dollars 1997 ASCI RED 4510 TeraFLOPS 18.18182GFLOPS/million dollars 2002 EARTHSIMULATOR 5120 TeraFLOPS 17.5GFLOPS/million dollars 2004 BLUEGENE/L 65536 10TeraFLOPS 2.8TFLOPS/million dollars 2007 PLAYSTATION3 CLUSTER† 8playstation 375TFLOPS/million dollars 2008 NVIDIA TESLA* 960cores 439.1 TFLOPS/ million dollars 2008 ROADRUNNER‡ 19440 10sTeraFLOPS 8.3TFLOPS/ million dollars

*Based on the cost of building your own Tesla supercomputer out of four Tesla C1060 units. Complete instructions are available at nvidia.com

† Seven processors per node at 150GFLPS per Unit for a single processor( 11 processors per node for a dual processor). $400-plus per node. ‡ 6480 Opteron CPUs and 12960 Cell processors. Supercomputers are massively parallel chips can be used to calculate protein folding, predict climate change and crack the encryption of hitherto-secure Web sites. Nvidia advertises its new workstation, the Tesla, as a “personal supercomputer”. It clusters 4 Nvidia C1060 processing boards, each of which unites 240 graphic cores to process instructions at nearly teraflop speed. Tesla does single-precision floating-point calculations using 8-bit bytes. Roadrunner uses 64-bit floating integers. Table I.4.Evolution of Microprocessor Chip  Name Technology Data & Address Size Packing Density Number of Pins Clock Rate Instructions Per Second Year & Price. Intel 4004 10µm 4-bit 2300PMOS 16 740kHz 92kIPS 1971 Rs 7,500.00 Intel 8080 3 µm 8-bit 6000NMOS 40 2MHz 0.64MIPS 1977 Intel 8086 3 µm 16-bit 29,000 HMOS 40 5 MHz 0.33MIPS 1978 Intel 80286 1.5 µm Data 16b Address 24b 134,000 HMOS 68 6-12.5 MHz 1.8 MIPS 1982 Intel 80386 1 µm 32-bit 275,000 CMOS 132 16 MHZ 5 MIPS 1985 Intel 80486 800nmpipelined 32-bit 1.2million CMOS 168 25 MHZ 20 MIPS 1989 Pentium 600nmSuperscalararchitecture Data 64b Address32bMemory Size 232=4GB 3.1 million CMOS ? 60 MHZ 100 MIPS 1993 Pentium II 350nm Same 7.5 million CMOS 370 233 MHZ 400 MIPS 1997 Pentium III 250nm same 9.5 CMOS 370 450 MHZ 1000 MIPS 1999 Pentium IV 180nm Data 64b Address 64b 42 million CMOS(Nano electronics) 478 2.2 GHz 5GIPS 2001 MOORE’s LAW: The packing density of CMOS on μP Chip would double every two years leading to an exponential growth in the complexity and speed of μP Chip. Table I.5. Evolution of Computers. Table 5 Generation Components Architecture Logic Programming Language  1st (1947-ENIAC 1952- Univac I, Main-Frame) Vacuum Tubes 2nd(1956-UNIVAC II, Main Frame Discrete BJT 3 rd(1964- PDP8,Mini-comp.,Table Top) IC’s chips 4 th(1977- APPLE II, Micro-comp., Desk Top, Personal Comp. μP chips Von-neumann, sequential Boolean Algorithm Fortran,Basic,Algol 5 thRobotics, Data Based Medical Diagnostic Tools Artificial Intelligence Machines Data-flow, Systolic, Pipeline Predicate Heuristic Prolog, Lisp Table I.6. Evolution of Local Area Network  Year Standard Name Data transfer rate 1973 802.1 OSI (Open System Interconnection) 10Mbps 802.2 Logical Link Control 10Mbps 1983 802.3 CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect) 10Mbps 802.4 Token Bus 100Mbps 802.5 Token Ring 100Mbps 1999 802.11 WLL (Wire Local Loop) 1 Gbps 2001 802.13 Wi-Fi (Wireless internet Access Table I.7. Development in submarine cable.(Sources: Telegraphy Research: “History of the Atlantic Cable and Undersea Communications” by Bill Glover,Wikipedia).  Region Submarine Cable %BW utilization LIT Submarine Cable Capacity Asia 69% Middle East 73% Oceania 56% Europe 52% US & Europe 51% Latin America & Caribbean 77% Africa 69% Transatlantic Cable 15% US-Latin America 37% Transpacific 21% Europe-Asia 91% Intra-Asia 31% Submarine Cable Boom: In 2001 US$13.5 billion was spent. Due to Dot.com bust, only \$2billion was spent during four lean years from 2004 to 2007. Even the during the lean periods, global demand never slaked growing at an average compound annual rate of 54% from 2002 to 2008. In Latin America and the Caribbean, traffic grew the most at more than 75%.

METALFE LAW: The value of a NETWORK grows as the square of the numbe of users.

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