**(a) Introduction.**

*(1)* Within a well-balanced mathematics curriculum, the primary focal points at Grade 5 are comparing and contrasting lengths, areas, and volumes of two- or three-dimensional geometric figures; representing and interpreting data in graphs, charts, and tables; and applying whole number operations in a variety of contexts.

**(b) Knowledge and skills.**

*(2)* Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student uses fractions in problem-solving situations.

*(5)* Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking. The student makes generalizations based on observed patterns and relationships. The student is expected to:

- (A) describe the relationship between sets of data in graphic organizers such as lists, tables, charts, and diagrams;

*(11)* Measurement. The student applies measurement concepts. The student measures time and temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius). The student is expected to:

- (A) solve problems involving changes in temperature; and
- (B) solve problems involving elapsed time.

*(13)* Probability and statistics. The student solves problems by collecting, organizing, displaying, and interpreting sets of data. The student is expected to:

- (A) use tables of related number pairs to make line graphs;
- (C) graph a given set of data using an appropriate graphical representation such as a picture or line graph.

*(14)* Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student applies Grade 5 mathematics to solve problems connected to everyday experiences and activities in and outside of school. The student is expected to:

- (A) identify the mathematics in everyday situations;
- (B) solve problems that incorporate understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the solution for reasonableness;
- (D) use tools such as real objects, manipulatives, and technology to solve problems.

*(15)* Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student communicates about Grade 5 mathematics using informal language. The student is expected to:

- (A) explain and record observations using objects, words, pictures, numbers, and technology; and
- (B) relate informal language to mathematical language and symbols.

*(16)* Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student uses logical reasoning. The student is expected to:

- (A) make generalizations from patterns or sets of examples and nonexamples; and
- (B) justify why an answer is reasonable and explain the solution process.