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Introduction

Magnetism is a force that certain kinds of objects, which are called `magnetic' objects, can exert on each other without physically touching. A magnetic object is surrounded by a magnetic `field' that gets weaker as one moves further away from the object. A second object can feel a magnetic force from the first object because it feels the magnetic field of the first object.

Humans have known about magnetism for many thousands of years. For example, lodestone is a magnetised form of the iron oxide mineral magnetite. It has the property of attracting iron objects. It is referred to in old European and Asian historical records; from around 800 BCE in Europe and around 2 600 BCE in Asia.

Note: Interesting Fact :

The root of the English word magnet is from the Greek word magnes, probably from Magnesia in Asia Minor, once an important source of lodestone.

Magnetic fields

A magnetic field is a region in space where a magnet or object made of magnetic material will experience a non-contact force.

Electrons inside any object have magnetic fields associated with them. In most materials these fields point in all directions, so the net magnetic field is zero. For example, in the plastic ball below, the directions of the magnetic fields of the electrons (shown by the arrows) are pointing in different directions and cancel each other out. Therefore the plastic ball is not magnetic and has no magnetic field.

Figure 1
Figure 1 (PG10C7_001.png)

In some materials (e.g. iron), called ferromagnetic materials, there are regions called domains, where the electrons' magnetic fields line up with each other. All the atoms in each domain are grouped together so that the magnetic fields from their electrons point the same way. The picture shows a piece of an iron needle zoomed in to show the domains with the electric fields lined up inside them.

Figure 2
Figure 2 (PG10C7_002.png)

In permanent magnets, many domains are lined up, resulting in a net magnetic field. Objects made from ferromagnetic materials can be magnetised, for example by rubbing a magnet along the object in one direction. This causes the magnetic fields of most, or all, of the domains to line up in one direction. As a result the object as a whole will have a net magnetic field. It is magnetic. Once a ferromagnetic object has been magnetised, it can stay magnetic without another magnet being nearby (i.e. without being in another magnetic field). In the picture below, the needle has been magnetised because the magnetic fields in all the domains are pointing in the same direction.

Figure 3
Figure 3 (PG10C7_003.png)

Investigation : Ferromagnetic materials and magnetisation

  1. Find 2 paper clips. Put the paper clips close together and observe what happens.
    1. What happens to the paper clips?
    2. Are the paper clips magnetic?
  2. Now take a permanent bar magnet and rub it once along 1 of the paper clips. Remove the magnet and put the paper clip which was touched by the magnet close to the other paper clip and observe what happens. Does the untouched paper clip feel a force on it? If so, is the force attractive or repulsive?
  3. Rub the same paper clip a few more times with the bar magnet, in the same direction as before. Put the paper clip close to the other one and observe what happens.
    1. Is there any difference to what happened in step 2?
    2. If there is a difference, what is the reason for it?
    3. Is the paper clip which was rubbed repeatedly by the magnet now magnetised?
    4. What is the difference between the two paper clips at the level of their atoms and electrons?
  4. Now, find a metal knitting needle, or a metal ruler, or other metal object. Rub the bar magnet along the knitting needle a few times in the same direction. Now put the knitting needle close to the paper clips and observe what happens.
    1. Does the knitting needle attract the paper clips?
    2. What does this tell you about the material of the knitting needle? Is it ferromagnetic?
  5. Repeat this experiment with objects made from other materials. Which materials appear to be ferromagnetic and which are not? Put your answers in a table.

A ferromagnetic material is a substance that shows spontaneous magnetisation.

Permanent magnets

The poles of permanent magnets

Because the domains in a permanent magnet all line up in a particular direction, the magnet has a pair of opposite poles, called north (usually shortened to N) and south (usually shortened to S). Even if the magnet is cut into tiny pieces, each piece will still have both a N and a S pole. These magnetic poles always occur in pairs. In nature, we never find a north magnetic pole or south magnetic pole on its own.

Figure 4
Figure 4 (PG10C7_004.png)

Magnetic fields are different from gravitational and electric fields. In nature, positive and negative electric charges can be found on their own, but you never find just a north magnetic pole or south magnetic pole on its own. On the very small scale, zooming in to the size of atoms, magnetic fields are caused by moving charges (i.e. the negatively charged electrons).

Magnetic attraction and repulsion

Like (identical) poles of magnets repel one another whilst unlike (opposite) poles attract. This means that two N poles or two S poles will push away from each other while a N pole and a S pole will be drawn towards each other.

Definition 1: Attraction and Repulsion

Like poles of magnets repel each other whilst unlike poles attract each other.

Exercise 1: Attraction and Repulsion

Do you think the following magnets will repel or be attracted to each other?

Figure 5
Figure 5 (PG10C7_006.png)

Solution
  1. Step 1. Determine what is required :

    We are required to determine whether the two magnets will repel each other or be attracted to each other.

  2. Step 2. Determine what is given :

    We are given two magnets with the N pole of one approaching the N pole of the other.

  3. Step 3. Determine the conclusion :

    Since both poles are the same, the magnets will repel each other.

Exercise 2: Attraction and repulsion

Do you think the following magnets will repel or be attracted to each other?

Figure 6
Figure 6 (PG10C7_007.png)

Solution
  1. Step 1. Determine what is required :

    We are required to determine whether the two magnets will repel each other or be attracted to each other.

  2. Step 2. Determine what is given :

    We are given two magnets with the N pole of one approaching the S pole of the other.

  3. Step 3. Determine the conclusion :

    Since both poles are the different, the magnets will be attracted to each other.

Representing magnetic fields

Magnetic fields can be represented using magnetic field lines starting at the North pole and ending at the South pole. Although the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is everywhere surrounding the magnet (in all three dimensions), we draw only some of the field lines to represent the field (usually only a two-dimensional cross-section is shown in drawings).

Figure 7
Figure 7 (PG10C7_008.png)

In areas where the magnetic field is strong, the field lines are closer together. Where the field is weaker, the field lines are drawn further apart. The number of field lines drawn crossing a given two-dimensional surface is referred to as the magnetic flux. The magnetic flux is used as a measure of the strength of the magnetic field over that surface.

Tip:

  1. Field lines never cross.
  2. Arrows drawn on the field lines indicate the direction of the field.
  3. A magnetic field points from the north to the south pole of a magnet.

Investigation : Field around a Bar Magnet

Take a bar magnet and place it on a flat surface. Place a sheet of white paper over the bar magnet and sprinkle some iron filings onto the paper. Give the paper a shake to evenly distribute the iron filings. In your workbook, draw the bar magnet and the pattern formed by the iron filings. Draw the pattern formed when you rotate the bar magnet to a different angle as shown below.

Figure 8
Figure 8 (PG10C7_009.png)

As the activity shows, one can map the magnetic field of a magnet by placing it underneath a piece of paper and sprinkling iron filings on top. The iron filings line themselves up parallel to the magnetic field.

Investigation : Field around a Pair of Bar Magnets

Take two bar magnets and place them a short distance apart such that they are repelling each other. Place a sheet of white paper over the bar magnets and sprinkle some iron filings onto the paper. Give the paper a shake to evenly distribute the iron filings. In your workbook, draw both the bar magnets and the pattern formed by the iron filings. Repeat the procedure for two bar magnets attracting each other and draw what the pattern looks like for this situation. Make a note of the shape of the lines formed by the iron filings, as well as their size and their direction for both arrangements of the bar magnet. What does the pattern look like when you place both bar magnets side by side?

Figure 9
Figure 9 (PG10C7_011.png)

As already said, opposite poles of a magnet attract each other and bringing them together causes their magnetic field lines to converge (come together). Like poles of a magnet repel each other and bringing them together causes their magnetic field lines to diverge (bend out from each other).

Figure 10
Figure 10 (PG10C7_012.png)

Figure 11
Figure 11 (PG10C7_013.png)

Ferromagnetism and Retentivity

Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon shown by materials like iron, nickel or cobalt. These materials can form permanent magnets. They always magnetise so as to be attracted to a magnet, no matter which magnetic pole is brought toward the unmagnetised iron/nickel/cobalt.

The ability of a ferromagnetic material to retain its magnetisation after an external field is removed is called its retentivity.

Paramagnetic materials are materials like aluminium or platinum, which become magnetised in an external magnetic field in a similar way to ferromagnetic materials. However, they lose their magnetism when the external magnetic field is removed.

Diamagnetism is shown by materials like copper or bismuth, which become magnetised in a magnetic field with a polarity opposite to the external magnetic field. Unlike iron, they are slightly repelled by a magnet.

The compass and the earth's magnetic field

A compass is an instrument which is used to find the direction of a magnetic field. A compass consists of a small metal needle which is magnetised itself and which is free to turn in any direction. Therefore, when in the presence of a magnetic field, the needle is able to line up in the same direction as the field.

Figure 12
Figure 12 (PG10C7_014.png)

Note: Interesting Fact :

Lodestone, a magnetised form of iron-oxide, was found to orientate itself in a north-south direction if left free to rotate by suspension on a string or on a float in water. Lodestone was therefore used as an early navigational compass.

Compasses are mainly used in navigation to find direction on the earth. This works because the earth itself has a magnetic field which is similar to that of a bar magnet (see the picture below). The compass needle aligns with the earth's magnetic field direction and points north-south. Once you know where north is, you can figure out any other direction. A picture of a compass is shown below:

Figure 13
Figure 13 (PG10C7_015.png)

Some animals can detect magnetic fields, which helps them orientate themselves and navigate. Animals which can do this include pigeons, bees, Monarch butterflies, sea turtles and certain fish.

The earth's magnetic field

In the picture below, you can see a representation of the earth's magnetic field which is very similar to the magnetic field of a giant bar magnet like the one on the right of the picture. So the earth has two sets of north poles and south poles: geographic poles and magnetic poles.

Figure 14
Figure 14 (PG10C7_016.png)

The earth's magnetic field is thought to be caused by flowing liquid metals in the outer core which causes electric currents and a magnetic field. From the picture you can see that the direction of magnetic north and true north are not identical. The geographic north pole, which is the point through which the earth's rotation axis goes, is about 11,5o away from the direction of the magnetic north pole (which is where a compass will point). However, the magnetic poles shift slightly all the time.

Another interesting thing to note is that if we think of the earth as a big bar magnet, and we know that magnetic field lines always point from north to south, then the compass tells us that what we call the magnetic north pole is actually the south pole of the bar magnet!

Note: Interesting Fact :

The direction of the earth's magnetic field flips direction about once every 200 000 years! You can picture this as a bar magnet whose north and south pole periodically switch sides. The reason for this is still not fully understood.

Phenomena related to the Earth's magnetic field

The importance of the magnetic field to life on Earth

The earth's magnetic field is very important for humans and other animals on earth because it protects us from being bombarded (hit) by high energy charged particles which are emitted by the Sun. The stream of charged particles (mainly positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons) coming from the sun is called the solar wind. When these particles come close to the Earth, they become trapped by the Earth's magnetic field and cannot shower down to the surface where they can harm living organisms. Astronauts in space are at risk of being irradiated by the solar wind because they are outside the zones where the charged particles are trapped.

The region above Earth's atmosphere in which charged particles are affected by Earth's magnetic field is called the magnetosphere. Relatively often, in addition to the usual solar wind, the Sun may eject a large bubble of material (protons and electrons) with its own magnetic field from its outer atmosphere. Sometimes these bubbles travel towards the Earth where their magnetic fields can join with Earth's magnetic field. When this happens a huge amount of energy is released into the Earth's magnetosphere, causing a geomagnetic storm. These storms cause rapid changes in the Earth's magnetosphere which in turn may affect electric and magnetic systems on the Earth such as power grids, cellphone networks, and other electronic systems.

Aurorae (pronounced Or-roar-ee)

Another effect caused by the Earth's magnetic field is the spectacular Northern and Southern Lights, which are also called the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis respectively. When charged particles from the solar wind reach the Earth's magnetosphere, they spiral along the magnetic field lines towards the North and South poles. If they collide with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they can cause red or green lights which stretch across a large part of the sky and which is called the aurora. Because this only happens close to the North and South poles, we cannot see the aurorae from South Africa. However, people living in the high Northern latitudes in Canada, Sweden, and Finland, for example, often see the Northern lights.

This simulation shows you the Earth's magnetic field and a compass.

Figure 15
Figure 15 (earthmag1.png)
run demo

Summary

  1. Magnets have two poles - North and South.
  2. Some substances can be easily magnetised.
  3. Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other.
  4. The Earth also has a magnetic field.
  5. A compass can be used to find the magnetic north pole and help us find our direction.

This video provides a summary of the work covered in this chapter.

Figure 16
Khan academy video on magnets

End of chapter exercises

  1. Describe what is meant by the term magnetic field.
    Click here for the solution.
  2. Use words and pictures to explain why permanent magnets have a magnetic field around them. Refer to domains in your explanation.
    Click here for the solution.
  3. What is a magnet?
    Click here for the solution.
  4. What happens to the poles of a magnet if it is cut into pieces?
    Click here for the solution.
  5. What happens when like magnetic poles are brought close together?
    Click here for the solution.
  6. What happens when unlike magnetic poles are brought close together?
    Click here for the solution.
  7. Draw the shape of the magnetic field around a bar magnet.
    Click here for the solution.
  8. Explain how a compass indicates the direction of a magnetic field.
    Click here for the solution.
  9. Compare the magnetic field of the Earth to the magnetic field of a bar magnet using words and diagrams.
    Click here for the solution.
  10. Explain the difference between the geographical north pole and the magnetic north pole of the Earth.
    Click here for the solution.
  11. Give examples of phenomena that are affected by Earth's magnetic field.
    Click here for the solution.
  12. Draw a diagram showing the magnetic field around the Earth.
    Click here for the solution.

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