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Water, electrolytes, acid-bases & carbohydrates

Module by: E. Pennington. E-mail the authorEdited By: E. Pennington

Summary: These are exercise test questions to help build your knowledge of Carbohydrate, Water, Electrolytes and Acid-base lectures. This will help expand your knowledge on the topics to maximize learning at a deeper level, build confidence and help you succeed in the course.

Table 1
1. Which of the following groups in a plasma protein can neutralize hydrogen ions at a blood pH of 7.35 to 7.45?
A. Peptide bonds
B. Nonpolar amino acids
C. Polar and uncharged amino acids
D. Polar and charged amino acids
Table 2
2. How would the respiratory centers respond in order to decrease the concentration of hydrogens ions in the extracellular fluid?
A. Breathe slower
B. Breathe faster
C. Breathe at a normal rate
D. Hold your breath
Table 3
3. Which of the following renal buffers produces bicarbonate from the degradation of glutamine?
A. Bicarbonate-Carbonic Acid
B. Urate
C. Ammonia-Ammonium
D. Phosphate
E. Citrate
Table 4
4. Which of the following lab tests can be used to diagnose BOTH electrolytes and acid-base disorders?
A. Anion gap
B. Arterial blood gases
C. Base excess
D. Serum electrolytes
Table 5
5. Which of the following therapies would be helpful in the treatment of metabolic acid-base disorders?
A. Increase ventilation
B. Decrease ventilation
C. Fluid and electrolytes
D. Supplement oxygen
Table 6
6. Which of the following laboratory tests indicates a deviation in a patient's blood pH from normal blood pH?
A. Base excess
B. Anion gap
C. Serum electrolytes
D. Blood gases
Table 7
7. A patient is diagnosed with respiratory acidosis. Which compensatory mechanism will attempt to correct this acid imbalance?
A. Lungs increase ventilation
B. Lungs decrease ventilation
C. Kidneys excrete bicarbonate ions in urine
D. Kidneys absorb bicarbonate ions in blood
Table 8
8. A 35 year old male with a history of poor diet and frequent alcohol consumption is admitted to the hospital. His lab results showed: pH = 7. 1 (normal range 7.35 - 7.45); [HCO3-] = 18 mEq/L (normal range 20-29 mEq/L) and PCO2 = 38 mm Hg (normal range 35 - 45 mm Hg). Which of the following acid-base disorders is consistent with these lab results?
A. Metabolic acidosis
B. Metabolic alkalosis
C. Respiratory acidosis
D. Respiratory alkalosis
Table 9
9. Which of the following electrolyte disorders can occur as a result of excess aldosterone?
A. Hyponatremia
B. Hypochloremia
C. Hypokalemia
D. Hypermagnesemia
Table 10
10. Which of the following electrolytes is increased in a non-anion gap acidosis?
A. Sodium
B. Potassium
C. Chloride
D. Bicarbonate
Table 11
11. A 45 year old woman secretes excess parathyroid hormone. Which of the following electrolytes would be affected?
A. Sodium
B. Calcium
C. Chloride
D. Potassium
Table 12
12. Which of the following disorders is caused by excess production of sorbitol?
A. Fructose intolerance
B. Fructose malabsorption
C. Diabetic cataracts
D. Fructosuria
Table 13
13. Which of the following enzymes is defective in hereditary fructose intolerance?
A. Fructokinase
B. Triose kinase
C. Hexokinase
D. Aldolase
Table 14
14. Which of the following hormones regulate GLUT 4 transporters in the brain?
A. Aldosterone
B. Antidiuretic hormone
C. Parathyroid hormone
D. Calcitonin
E. Insulin
Table 15
15. Which of the following hormones decreases BOTH plasma water volume and blood pressure?
A. Antidiuretic hormone
B. Natriuretic Peptides
C. Parathyroid Hormone
D. Calcitonin
E. Aldosterone
Table 16
16. Which age group is susceptible to water intoxication and dehydration as a result of immature kidneys?
A. Elderly
B. Adults
C. Infants
D. Adolescents
Table 17
17. Which of the following hormones can cause severe dehydration due to diabetes insipidus AND water intoxication due to its hyper-secretion in cases of drug abuse?
A. Antidiuretic Hormone
B. Aldosterone
C. Natriuretic peptides
D. Calcitonin
E. Parathyroid Hormone
Table 18
18. A healthy 23 year old soldier carries out patrol missions in full combat gear in temperatures of over 145 degrees. Which of the following conditions will this soldier most likely develop if he does not ingest adequate amounts of water daily?
A. Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus
B. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
C. Gastroenteritis
D. Kidney stones
E. Edema
Table 19
19. Which of the following statements describes a common property shared by BOTH water and electrolytes?
A. Water and electrolytes move freely in the body via electrical impulses.
B. Hydrogen bonds alter the concentration of electrolytes in the compartments.
C. Water and electrolytes are vital for some of the chemical reactions in the body.
D. Hydrostatic and osmotic pressures facilitate the solvation of electrolytes in water.
Table 20
20. Which metabolic pathway is directly connected to the degradation of fructose?
A. Polyol pathway
B. Oxidative phosphorylation
C. Tricarboxylic acid cycle
D. Glycolysis

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