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Proteins, Amino Acids, Nucleic Acids, Electron transport chain and Tricarboxylic acid

Module by: E. Pennington. E-mail the authorEdited By: E. Pennington

Summary: These are exercise test questions to help build your knowledge of Proteins, Amino Acids, Nucleic Acids, Electron transport chain and Tricarboxylic acid lectures. This will help expand your knowledge on the topics to maximize learning at a deeper level, build confidence and help you succeed in the course.

Table 1
1. Which of the following interactions is LEAST LIKELY to contribute to the overall 3-dimensional structure of a protein and its physiological function?
A. Hydrophobic regions
B. Hydrogen bonding
C. Conduction of heat
D. Disulfide bonds
E. Ionic bonding
Table 2
2. Which of the following classifications will MORE LIKE describe the dual function of the side groups of an amino acid acting as polar binding site as well as an acid-base buffer?
A. Non-polar amino acids
B. Polar and uncharged amino acids
C. Polar and charged amino acids
D. Peptide bonds
E. L-form isomers
Table 3
3. Which of the following statements is the MOST ACCURATE in regards to the DNA molecular structure?
A. DNA is a single stranded molecule with secondary and tertiary structures of a common protein.
B. DNA strands run in the same direction and are parallel to each other in a linear fashion to keep the DNA molecule intact.
C. The DNA molecule has a double stranded spiral shape with two types of grooves for protein interactions.
D. The phosphodiester bond formed between the carbon atoms of two adjacent ribose sugars facilitates the overall shape of the DNA molecule.
E. The overall shape of the DNA molecule is determined by base pairing between two purines (adenine and guanine) or two pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine).

Table 4
4. In which region of the tRNA molecule would amino acids MOST LIKELY bind?
A. Anticodon
B. Ribothymidine
C. Dihydrouridine
D. 3' end adenosine
E. Pseudouridine

Table 5
5. Which of the following DNA repair mechanisms MOST LIKELY corrects the addition of bulky adducts on the bases of DNA?
A. Base Excision
B. Replication
C. Mismatch
D. Nucleotide Excision
E. Transcription-Coupled
Table 6
  6. Which of the following processes BEST describe the release of an uncharged-tRNA on the P site and the movement of a peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of the 80S ribosome?
  A. Replication
  B. Transcription
  C. Initiation
  D. Translocation
  E. Termination

Table 7
7. Which of the following statements is the LEAST ACCURATE about DNA polymerase delta?
A. This enzyme starts adding polynucleotides to the newly synthesized DNA chain after an RNA-DNA primer is formed on both the leading and lagging strands.
B. This enzyme can synthesize about 200 nucleotides of DNA in the lagging strand before it reaches the RNA primer of the next Okazaki fragment.
C. This enzyme continuously adds polynucleotides to the newly synthesize DNA in the leading strand.
D. This enzyme is also considered a 3' to 5' exonuclease that proofreads the newly synthesize DNA to detect and repair DNA changes.
E. This enzyme has the capabilities of an RNA polymerase and completes DNA synthesis at the end of the chromosomes.

Table 8
  8. Which of the following DNA mutations will MOST LIKELY produce a defective mRNA with a different reading frame than normal?
  A. Point Mutations
  B. Frameshift
  C. Missense
  D. Nonsense
  E. Silent

Table 9
9. Which of the following codon is LEAST LIKELY to terminate protein synthesis?
A. UAG
B. UAA
C. AUG
D. UGA

Table 10
10. Which of the following structures MOST LIKELY makes the 3' end of a newly synthesized mRNA molecule?
A. 5' cap
B. Pol (A) tail
C. Codons for amino acids
D. Start codon
E. Stop codon

Table 11
11. Which of the following statements is LEAST LIKELY to be correct about metabolism in the mitochondria?
A. In the mitochondria, cellular respiration involves oxidation of fuels.
B. The goal of metabolism is to generate energy in the form of ATP.
C. ATP is use as energy to sustain cellular respiration in the mitochondria as well as other metabolic pathways.
D. Cellular respiration does not consumed oxygen in order to generate ATP.
E. Three pathways, the tricarboxylic acid, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, work together to generate ATP and heat.

Table 12
12. Which of the following components in the electron transport chain MOST LIKELY shares the same enzyme with the tricarboxylic acid pathway?
A. Complex I: NADH dehydrogenase
B. Complex II: Succinate dehydrogenase
C. Cytochrome c
D. Complex III: cytochromes b-c1
E. Complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase

Table 13
11. Which of the following statements is LESS ACCURATE about the electron transport chain?
A. Pathway responds very rapidly based on the body's needs and demands for energy (ATP).
B. Pathway uses an electrochemical gradient of protons to provide the energy necessary for ATP synthesis, transport of ions across the mitochondrial membrane and heat.
C. This pathway is reversible and electron transfer is not linked to proton pumping into the intermembrane space.
D. Pathway consists of a series of oxidation-reductions reactions carried out by a series of electron carrier complexes inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
E. The electrons carriers pass electrons to other complexes sequentially while pumping protons into the intermembrane space.

Table 14
14. Which of the following pairs of enzymes are MOST LIKELY to cause accumulation of acids in the blood as a result of thiamine deficiency?
A. Malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase
B. Succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase
C. Pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase
D. SuccinylCoA synthase and citrate synthase
E. Isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase
Table 15
15. Which of the following classes of molecules is LESS LIKELY to feed into the tricarboxylic acid pathway to be oxidized as fuel?
A. Amino acids
B. Carbohydrates
C. Fatty Acids
D. Enzymes
E. Alcohols like ethanol
Table 16
16. Which of the following chemicals is LESS LIKELY to cause damage to the central nervous system or cancer by inhibiting alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid pathway?
A. Mercury
B. Arsenate (AsO4-3)
C. Arsenite (AsO3-3)
D. NADH
Table 17
17. Which of the following statements is LEAST ACCURATE about oxidative phosphorylation?
A. One full turn of the c subunits of the F0 pore releases a total of twelve protons into the mitochondrial matrix.
B. Energy from the electrochemical gradient of the electron transport chain and rotation of the asymmetric shaft of the F0 pore alters the shape of binding sites of the F1 headpiece.
C. One full term of the binding sites in the F1 headpiece releases twelve ATP molecules.
D. The three binding sites in the F1 headpiece facilitates: binding of ADP + Pi, as well as synthesis and release of ATP.
E. The body increased needs for energy during strenuous exercise ties together oxidative phosphorylation to the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid pathways.
Table 18
  18. In the picture below:graphics1.pngWhich of the following DNA mutations is MOST LIKELY the cause of these changes in the chromosomes?
  A. Duplications
  B. Deletions
  C. Silent
  D. Missense
  E. Nonsense

Table 19
19. Which of the following metabolic pathways are LESS LIKELY to use an intermediate molecule directly from the tricarboxylic acid pathway for their other own metabolism?
A. Amino acids synthesis, nucleotide synthesis and gluconeogenesis
B. Glycolysis, glycogen synthesis and pentose phosphate pathway
C. Fatty acids, steroids and neurotransmitter synthesis
D. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
E. Porphyrin and heme synthesis

Table 20
20. In this picture below, abnormal red blood cells are microcytic and hypochromic.graphics2.png This picture shows the result of a disorder affecting the heme synthesis and the Fe-S centers of the proteins in the electron transport chain. Which of the following disorders is MOST LIKELY to cause this appearance on a peripheral blood smear?
A. Hypoxia
B. Cyanide poisoning
C. Malaria
D. Iron deficiency
E. Hemolytic disease of the newborn

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