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Carbohydrate and Nitrogen

Module by: E. Pennington. E-mail the authorEdited By: E. Pennington

Summary: These are exercise test questions to help build your knowledge of carbohydrate and nitrogen lectures. This will help expand your knowledge on the topics to maximize learning at a deeper level, build confidence and help you succeed in the course.

Table 1
1. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about the glucose transporters in the brain?
A. Regions of the brain with higher need for glucose have high densities of glucose transporters to facilitate this uptake.
B. Two types of GLUT1 exist in the cerebral cortex, neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes.
C. GLUT3 is primarily found in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia cells in the brain.
D. GLUT5 is a multifunction transporter predominantly found in the microglial cells.
E. There are other types of transporters in the brain such GLUT2, GLUT4 and GLUT7.
Table 2
2. Which of the following byproducts of hemoglobin degradation feeds directly into the amino acid pool?
A. Heme
B. Iron
C. Bilirubin
D. α and β chains
E. Biliverdin
Table 3
3. Which of the following statements about how the liver support blood glucose levels is INCORRECT?
A. Glucagon levels rise during fasting, increasing the cAMP levels to activate glycogen phosphorylase to release glucose from glycogen degradation.
B. Glucagon levels decrease in the fed state, decreasing the cAMP levels to stop glycogen degradation by inactivating glycogen phosphorylase.
C. Insulin levels rise during fasting, increasing the cAMP levels to activate glycogen synthase for glycogen synthesis.
D. Insulin and glucose levels rise during the fed state increasing the uptake of glucose via glucose transporters and stimulating glycogen synthesis
E. Epinephrine binds alpha and beta receptors to stimulate glycogen degradation during periods of exercise, stress and hypoglycemia.
Table 4
4. Which of the following metabolites in the degradation of glycine causes precipitates (renal stones) with excess calcium ions in the kidneys?
A. Serine
B. Glycine
C. Oxalate
D. Ammonia
E. Glyoxylate
Table 5
5. Which of the following is NOT a byproduct of the bacterial digestion of undigested fibers?
A. Lactate
B. Acetic Acid
C. Hydrogen gas
D. Sulfuric acid
E. Methane gas
Table 6
6. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation?
A. The chemical structure of the electron carriers facilitates electron transfer down the Fe-S centers and proton pumping out of the matrix.
B. The electrochemical gradient outside the matrix provides energy for ATP synthesis, transport of molecules/ions across cell membranes and heat.
C. This is a series of REDOX reactions with O2 acting as an electron donor, NADH and FADH2 as the electron acceptors, and 5 mol of ATP as the only products.
D. One complete turn of the F0F1 ATPase synthase would release 12 protons and three ATP molecules into the matrix of the mitochondria.
E. A proton back pressure maintains the rate of proton pumping and oxygen consumption and this regulation also affects the rate of ATP synthesis.
Table 7
7. Which of the following IS NOT a metabolic function of NADPH from the pentose phosphate pathway?
A. Detoxification and superoxide synthesis
B. Fatty acid synthesis and chain elongation
C. Neurotransmitter and cholesterol synthesis
D. Deoxynucleotide synthesis for DNA
E. Glucose synthesis and degradation
Table 8
8. Which of the following amino acids, produced from intermediates of tricarboxylic acid, is used for the synthesis of both purine bases for nucleic acids and neurotransmitters?
A. Glycine
B. Glutamate
C. Aspartate
D. Arginine
E. Alanine
9. Which of the following molecules is a byproduct of hemoglobin degradation that can be excreted as glucuronides via the intestines or the kidneys?
A. Iron
B. Amino acids
C. Bilirubin
D. Alpha chains
E. Beta chains
Table 9
10. Which of the following organs is the main site for the urea cycle?
A. Lungs
B. Kidneys
C. Liver
D. Intestines
E. Brain

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